Title for an elder holy man.
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Babruvahana or Babhruvahana is a character in the Mahabharata, a Hindu epic. He is one of the son of Arjuna, begotten through Chitrangada, the princess of Manipura during the period of his exile at Manipura.
Babruvahana was adopted as the son of his maternal grandfather and reigned at Manipura as his successor. He dwelt there in a palace of great splendour, surrounded with wealth and signs of power.
When Arjuna went to Manipura with the horse intended for the Aswamedha, there was a quarrel between Arjuna and King Babhruvahana(who is avatar of Prabhasa) and the latter killed his father with an arrow. Repenting of his deed, he determined to kill himself, but he obtained from his stepmother, the Naga princess Uloopi, a gem which restored Arjuna to life. He returned with his father to Hastinapura. This was on account of a curse by the Vasus, on account of Arjuna's killing Bhishma(who is an incarnation of Prabhasa) during the Mahābhārata war.
Bactria (from Βακτριανή, the Hellenized version of Bactrian; Old Persian Bāxtriš; Uzbek: Балх; Tajik: Бохтар; Vedic Sanskrit Báhlika) is the ancient name of a historical region covering the modern-day flat regions that straddle present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan. Bactria was one of the ancient civilizations of Iranian peoples. It was located south of the Pamir Mountains and the Amu Darya, surrounding the district of Gandhara (said to be its "crown jewel") to its south.
Bactria was the birthplace of Zoroastrianism, and later also hosted Buddhism before becoming Muslim after the arrival of the Rashidun and the Umayyad Caliphates in the 7th century. Bactria was also sometimes referred to by the Greeks as Bactriana.
Badrinath is a holy town and a nagar panchayat in Chamoli district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is the most important of the four sites in India's Char Dham pilgrimage and gets its name from the Holy temple of Badrinath.
A king of the Solar race. who was vanquished and driven out of his country by the tribes of Haihayas and TaIajanghas. He was father of Sagara.
The changed name of Nala, as a charioteer of Rituparna, the king of Ayodhya. Also other name of king Bahu. Bahuka was the changed name of Nala, a character of Hindu mythology, while he was a charioteer of Rituparna, the king of Ayodhya. His story is told in the Mahabharata, published around the 8th century BC. Nala is believed to have turned into Bahuka on account of a snake bite.
There have been independent folktales from Assam talking about his visit to a foreign land in the east, now considered China. He was propelled to leave Ayodhya after he falls in love with a simple village girl, Kajolie. Bahuka's adopted father King Shava did not approve of the match. In the east, he met three wise women. One of the dark haired woman said that she came from Bamyian and she knew the secret to life was to realize the stupidity of human beings. The second woman from Sichuan preached that everything exists through exclusion of everything else. The third woman from Dravida was quiet and said nothing. Bahuka understood the meaning of enlightenment and kept these words of wisdom near his heart.
On his eastward journey, he entered the village of Tripura where he met the village leader Chameli who gave Bahuka magic beans (in some accounts he received magic sweets) with the power to summon the blue spirit Jaduu. Jaduu grants Bahuku with gifts of wisdom and dance. Tanay Doctor was the most successful folk tale writer for Assam.
Bahuka is also another name of king Bahu.
A voracious, cruel and terribly strong Rakshasa or demon who lived in a cave near the city of Ekachakrapura whom Bhima killed to the great relief of the citizens. In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Bakasura, (also called Bakasur or Bakasuran) is a Rakshasa (demon) killed by Bhima. The demon lived near the city of Ekachakra (sometimes Chakranagari), and forced the king to send him daily a large quantity of provisions, which he devoured, and not only the provisions, but the men who carried them. Under the directions of Kunti, her son Bhima was sent to Bakasura for his food.
Balarama, elder brother of Sri Krishna. Balarama (Sanskrit: Balarāma), also known as Baladeva, Balabhadra and Halayudha, is the elder brother of Krishna (an avatar of the god Vishnu) and is regarded generally as an avatar of Shesha. He is also sometimes considered as the Sankarshana form of Vishnu and the eighth avatar of Vishnu.
He may have originated in Vedic times as a deity of agriculture and fertility hence his name Balaram (Rama with a plough). In scripture, Vishnu impregnated the belly of the goddess Devaki with two strands of hair, one black, one white. To ensure their safety, they were transferred before birth to Rohini. Krishna was born with darker complexion, while Balarama was fair. In Jainism he is known as Baladeva. He is often depicted with a drinking cup, pitcher, shield and sword.
The left-handed path.
Bana (also called Banasura), in Hindu mythology, was a thousand-armed asura and son of Bali. He was a powerful and terrible asura. All people even the king of earth and Devas of heaven were afraid of him. Banasura was a follower of Siva. He had a beautiful daughter named Usha. Banasura is believed to have ruled the present-day central Assam with his capital at Sonitpur (present-day Tezpur, Assam). According to another legend, Banasura was the King of ancient Nepal.
"Intermediate state" or "in-between state", According to Tibetan tradition, the state of existence intermediate between two lives. The Tibetan word bardo means literally "intermediate state"—also translated as "transitional state" or "in-between state" or "liminal state". In Sanskrit the concept has the name antarabhāva. It is a concept which arose soon after the Buddha's passing, with a number of earlier Buddhist groups accepting the existence of such an intermediate state, while other schools rejected it.
Used loosely, the term "bardo" refers to the state of existence intermediate between two lives on earth. According to Tibetan tradition, after death and before one's next birth, when one's consciousness is not connected with a physical body, one experiences a variety of phenomena.
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The daughter of Saha, a merchant of Nichhani Nagar; weds Lakshmindara, mentioned in the story of Manasa Devi who was the daughter of Shiva. Behula is the protagonist in the Shiva Purana and the Manasamangal genre of Bengali medieval epics. A number of works belonging to this genre were written between the thirteenth and eighteenth centuries. Though the religious purpose of these works is to eulogise the Hindu goddess Manasa, these works are more well known for depicting the love story of Behula and her husband Lakhindar.
In Hinduism, Bhadra is a goddess of the hunt and one of Shiva's servants. The eighth queen of the Lord Krishna was Bhadra, the daughter of King Bhadrasen. It is also an epithet of mount Meru.
Bhadrakālī is also known as the gentle Kali, who came into being by Devi's wrath, when Daksha insulted Shiva. She is the consort of Virabhadra.
Bhadrakālī (literally "Good Kali,") is a Hindu goddess popular in Southern India. She is one of the fierce forms of the Great Goddess (Devi) mentioned in the Devi Mahatmyam. Bhadrakali is the popular form of Devi worshipped in Kerala as Sri Bhadrakali and Kariam Kali Murti Devi. In Kerala she is seen as the auspicious and fortunate form of Kali who protects the good. It is believed that Bhadrakāli was a local deity that was assimilated into the mainstream Hinduism, particularly into Shaiva mythology. She is represented with three eyes, and four, twelve or eighteen hands. She carries a number of weapons, with flames flowing from her head, and a small tusk protruding from her mouth. Her worship is also associated with the Tantric tradition of the Matrikas as well as the tradition of the ten Mahavidyas and falls under the broader umbrella of Shaktism.
King of Pragjyotisha, a Kaurava ally. Bhagadatta was the son of Naraka, king of the Pragjyotisha Kingdom and second in line of kings of Naraka dynasty. He was succeeded by his son Vajradatta.
The national gospel contained in Mahābhārata, Part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhishma–Parva chapters 23–40. A core sacred text of Hinduism and philosophy.
The Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit: bhagavad-gītā in IAST; "Song of the Lord"), referred to as simply the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata.
The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna. Facing the duty as a warrior to fight the Dharma Yudhha or righteous war between Pandavas and Kauravas, Arjuna is counselled by Krishna to "fulfill his Kshatriya (warrior) duty as a warrior and establishing Dharma." Inserted in this appeal to kshatriya dharma (chivalry) is "a dialogue [...] between diverging attitudes concerning and methods toward the attainment of liberation (moksha)". The Bhagavad Gita was exposed to the world through Sanjaya. Sanjaya is Dhritarashtra's advisor and also his charioteer.
The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis of the Brahmanical concept of Dharma, theistic bhakti, the yogic ideals of moksha through jnana, bhakti, karma, and Raja Yoga (spoken of in the 6th chapter). and Samkhya philosophy.
Numerous commentaries have been written on the Bhagavad Gita with widely differing views on the essentials. Vedanta commentators read varying relations between Self and Brahman in the text: Advaita Vedanta sees the non-dualism of Atman (soul) and Brahman as its essence, whereas Bhedabheda and Vishishtadvaita see Atman and Brahman as both different and non-different, and Dvaita sees them as different. The setting of the Gita in a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life.
The Bhagavad Gita 's call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Gandhi referred to the Gita as his "spiritual dictionary".
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Form of address to Gods and great rishis, example-Bhagawan Sri Krishna, Narada, Vyasa. A Sanskrit word meaning "Holy or Blessed one". It is a title of veneration, often translated as "Lord" and refers to God.
Bhagavān, is an epithet for God, particularly for Krishna and other avatars of Vishnu in Vaishnavism, as well as for Shiva in Shaivism tradition of Hinduism. In north India, Bhagavān also represents the concept of abstract God to Hindus who are religious but do not worship a specific deity.
The term Bhagavān does not appear in Vedas, nor in early or middle Upanishads. The oldest Sanskrit texts use the term Brahman to represent an abstract Supreme Soul, Absolute Reality, while using names of deities like Krishna, Vishnu, Shiva to represent gods and goddesses. The term Ishvara appears in later Vedas and middle Upanishads where it is used to discuss spiritual concepts. The word Bhagavān is found in later era literature, such as the Bhagavad Gita and the Puranas.
In Bhakti school literature, the term is typically used for any deity to whom prayers are offered; for example, Rama, Ganesha, Kartikeya, Krishna, Shiva or Vishnu. Often the deity is the devotee's one and only Bhagavan. Bhagavan is male in Bhakti traditions, and female equivalent of Bhagavān is Bhagavatī. To some Hindus the word Bhagavan is an abstract, genderless God concept.
In Buddhism's Pali scriptures, the term is used with Gautama Buddha, referring to him as Bhagavān Buddha (translated with the phrase 'Lord Buddha' or 'The Blessed One') and Bhagavān Shakyamuni. The term Bhagavān is also found in other Theravada, Mahayana and Tantra Buddhist texts.
Bhagavān is generally translated as Lord or God. In modern usage, Bhagavān is synonymous with Ishvara, Devatā, Hari or Prabhu, in some schools of Hinduism. Bhagavan is alternatively spelled as Bhagvān, Bhagwan or Bhagawan. The word is, in some sects, used as an honorific title for a spiritual leader considered fully enlightened by the sect. The word is also a proper noun and used as a first name for boys.
Alias Pārvatī, Shiva's wife. Bhagavati is a popular deity in the Indian states of Kerala, Goa and Konkan. It can be used to refer any of the Hindu goddesses like Durga, Kannaki, Parvati, Saraswati, Lakshmi, and Kali. In Goa, Bhagavati generally refers to Mahishasurmardini form of Shakti.
Son of Dilipa, king of Kosala who worshipped Shiva and brought down Ganges. Bhagirath (Sanskrit: bhagīratha) was a great king who brought the River Ganges, personified as the river goddess Ganga, to Earth from the heavens. When he was prince of Sagar Dynasty prince, he did penance for a thousand years to gain the release his 60,000 great-uncles from the curse of saint Kapila, which eventually led to descent of the goddess Ganga in the form of the river Ganges, to the earth. To commemorate his efforts, the head stream of the river is called Bhagirathi, till it meets Alaknanda River at Devprayag.
A Hindu devotional song. Great importance is attributed to the singing of bhajans within the Bhakti movement. A Bhajan is any type of Hindu devotional song. It has no fixed form: it may be as simple as a mantra or kirtan or as sophisticated as the dhrupad or kriti with music based on classical ragas and talas. It is normally lyrical, expressing love for the Divine. The name, a cognate of bhakti, meaning religious devotion, suggests its importance to the bhakti movement that spread from the south of India throughout the entire subcontinent in the Moghul era.
Anecdotes and episodes from scriptures, the teachings of saints and descriptions of gods have all been the subject of bhajans. The Dhrupad style, Sufi qawwali and the kirtan or song in the Haridasi tradition are related to bhajan. Nanak, Kabir, Meera, Narottama Dasa, Surdas and Tulsidas are notable composers. Traditions of bhajan such as Nirguni, Gorakhanathi, Vallabhapanthi, Ashtachhap, Madhura-bhakti and the traditional South Indian form Sampradya Bhajan each have their own repertoire and methods of singing.
Example video: Krishna Das: Kirtan Wallah - "Radhe Govinda"
A person who practices bhakti is called bhakta.
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A Sanskrit term that means intense devotion expressed by action (service). A person who practices bhakti is called bhakta.
Bhakti literally means "attachment, participation, devotion to, fondness for, homage, faith or love, worship, piety to (as a religious principle or means of salvation)". Bhakti, in Hinduism, refers to devotion and the love of a personal god or a representational god by a devotee. In ancient texts such as the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, the term simply means participation in, devotion and love for any endeavor, or it refers to one of the possible paths of spirituality and moksha as in bhakti marga mentioned in the Bhagavad Gita. The term also refers to a movement that arose between the 7th century and 10th century CE in India, focussed on the gods Vishnu and Shiva, possibly in response to the arrival of Islam in India.
The Bhakti movement reached North India in the Delhi Sultanate and grew throughout the Mughal era evolving the characteristics of Hinduism as the religion of the general population as dhimmi, under the Islamic rulers in parts of the Indian subcontinent. Bhakti-like movements also spread to other Indian religions during this period, and it influenced the interaction between Christianity and Hinduism in the modern era.
The term bhakti, in modern era, is used to refer to any tradition of Hindu devotionalism, including Shaivism ,Vaishnavism or Shaktism. Bhakti movement rose in importance during the medieval history of Hinduism, starting with Southern India with the Vaisnava Alvars and Shaiva Nayanars, growing rapidly therefrom with the spread bhakti poetry and devotion throughout India by the 12th-18th century CE. The Bhagavata Purana is a text associated with the Bhakti movement which elaborates the concept of bhakti as found in the Bhagavad Gita.
Along with Hinduism, nirguni Bhakti (devotion to the divine without attributes) is found in Sikhism.
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The Hindu term for the spiritual practice of fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. Bhakti yoga is a spiritual path or spiritual practice within Hinduism focused on the cultivation of love and devotion toward God. It has been defined as a practice of devotion toward God, solely motivated by the sincere, loving desire to please God, rather than the hope of divine reward or the fear of divine punishment. It is a means toward a state of spiritual liberation or enlightenment through the "realisation", or the attainment of "oneness" with God. Bhakti yoga is often considered by Hindus to be the easiest way for ordinary people to attain such a spiritually liberated state, because although it is a form of yoga, its practice is not as rigorous as most other yogic schools, and it is possible to practice bhakti yoga without needing to become a full-time yogi.
The Bhagavad Gita, the Bhagavata Purana and the Puranas are important scriptures that expound the philosophy of bhakti yoga. Hindu movements in which bhakti yoga is the main practice are called bhakti movements – the major schools of which are Vaishnavism, Shaivism, and Shaktism.
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The polite particle used to refer to Buddhist monks in the Theravada tradition. Bhante literally means "Venerable Sir."
A rishi, father of Yavakrida. Bharadwaja also spelled Bhardwaj (IAST: Bharadvāja), was one of the greatest Hindu sages (Maharṣis) descendant of Sage (Ṛṣi) Aṅgirasā, whose accomplishments are detailed in the Purāṇas. He is one of the Saptaṛṣis (Seven Great Sages or Rishis) in the present Manvantara; with others being Atri, Vasiṣṭha, Viswamitra, Gautama, Jamadagni, Kaśyapa.
Bharadvāja Bārhaspatya is the progenitor of the Bhāradvāja family and the family is attributed as the composers of Sixth Maṇḍala of the Ṛgveda. Maṇḍala 6 is known as the Bhāradvāja Family Book as all its 75 hymns are composed by a member of this family over several centuries. He is believed to be a contemporary of King Bhārata. Maharṣi Bharadvāja and his descendants were respected and powerful priests-like ṛṣi of several clans/dynasties of the Puru tribe, such as the Bhāratas and the Pañcālas.
Sage Bharadvāja was a sage of the Vedic times. He attained extraordinary scholarship. He had the great power of meditation. His Āśrama still exists at the holy Prayag (Allahabad).
Bharadwaja was also the father of Guru Droṇācārya and grandfather of Aśvatthāma from the epic Mahābhārata..His grandson rishi Aśvatthāma or otherwise called Drauni, will become one of the Saptarishi in next Manvantara. Bhardvāja is one the most exalted gotras of brahmin.
Means "to be or being maintained"). Bharat may be 1. a name of Agni 2. a name of Rudra 3. one of the Adityas 4. Emperor Bharata, son of Dushyanta and Shakuntalā 5. Bharata (Ramayana), a son of Dasharatha, younger brother of Rama 6. Bharata Muni, the author of the Natyashastra 7. Bharata (Bhagavata), the eldest of a hundred sons of a saintly king by name Rishabha Deva according to the Bhagavata purana.
Meaning ("descended from Bharata"). Bhārata may refer to 1. The Bhāratas, an Aryan tribe of the Rigveda 2. an early epic forming the core of the Mahabharata (allegedly comprising about a quarter of the extended epic) 3. the Republic of India (properly, Bhārata GaNarājya.
Karna's divine weapon.
Bhargava, also spelled Bhargav, is a community in India who believe themselves to be descended from the sage Bhrigu. Its members originate from the Dhosi Hill area and were originally known as Dhusars.
A demon slain by Krishna.
Becoming, being, existing; the 10th link of Pratitya-samutpada. The term "bhāva" ('status of being, a subjective becoming, states of mind', 'to become') is often translated as 'feeling, emotion, mood, devotional state of mind'. In Buddhist thought, bhāva denotes the continuity of life and death, including reincarnation, and the maturation arising therefrom. In the bhakti traditions, bhāva denotes the mood of ecstasy, self-surrender, and channelling of emotional energies that is induced by the maturation of devotion to one's ishtadeva (object of devotion).
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The bhavacakra is a symbolic representation of samsara (or cyclic existence) found on the outside walls of Tibetan Buddhist temples and monasteries in the Indo-Tibetan region. In the Mahayana Buddhist tradition, it is believed that the drawing was designed by the Buddha himself in order to help ordinary people understand the Buddhist teachings.
The bhavacakra is popularly referred to as the wheel of life. This term is also translated as wheel of cyclic existence or wheel of becoming.
"Beggar", a Buddhist monk. A bhikkhu is an ordained monastic ("monk") in Buddhism. A female monastic ("nun") is called a bhikkhuni.
A Buddhist nun. A bhikkhunī (Pali) or bhikṣuṇī is a fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism. Male monastics are called bhikkhus. Both bhikkhunis and bhikkhus live by the Vinaya, a set of rules. Until recently, the lineages of female monastics only remained in Mahayana Buddhism and thus are prevalent in countries such as Korea, Vietnam, China, and Taiwan but a few women have taken the full monastic vows in the Theravada and Vajrayana schools over the last decade.
In Buddhism, women are as capable of reaching nirvana as men. According to Buddhist scriptures, the order of bhikkhunis was first created by the Buddha at the specific request of his aunt and foster-mother Mahapajapati Gotami, who became the first ordained bhikkhuni. A famous work of the early Buddhist schools is the Therigatha, a collection of poems by elder nuns about enlightenment that was preserved in the Pāli Canon.
The second of Pāndavas who excelled in physical prowess as he was born of the wind-god. In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Bhima, is the second of the Pandavas.
The Mahabharata relates many events which portray the immense might of Bhima. One of the central reasons behind the envy of Duryodhana towards the Pandavas was the inability of the Kauravas to match Bhima's strength. Eventually Bhima is responsible for slaying all hundred Kaurava brothers in the Kurukshetra War.
Bhīshma was son of Shāntanu, the great Knight and guardian of the imperial house of Kurus. In the epic Mahabharata, Bhishma was the eighth son of Kuru King Shantanu, who was blessed with wish-long life and had sworn to serve the ruling Kuru king. and grand uncle of both the Pandavas and the Kauravas. An unparalleled archer and warrior, he once fought his own guru the mighty Parasurama and defeated him. He also handed down the Vishnu Sahasranama to Yudhisthira when he was on his death bed (of arrows) in the battlefield of Kurukshetra.
Raja of Kundalpur and father of Rukminī. In Hinduism, Bhishmaka (IAST:Bhīshmaka) (or Bhishmak) was the king of Vidarbha. He was the father of Rukmini, who married the Hindu deity Krishna.
Bhishmaka was father of Rukmi, the elder brother of Rukmini. Krishna married Rukmini by abducting her from the Vidarbha kingdom, though Rukmi wanted to give her as bride to Chedi king Shishupala. He fought with Krishna, but was defeated. When Krishna was about to kill him, Rukmini fell at Krishna's feet and begged to spare her brother's life. Krishna generously agreed, but shaved Rukmi's head as a punishment.
Bhoja was a philosopher king and polymath of medieval India, who ruled the kingdom of Malwa in central India from the early 11th century to 1055 CE. Also known as Raja Bhoj of Dhar, he belonged to the Paramara dynasty.
Bhoja established numerous temples, including the Bhojeshvara Temple at Bhojpur, a city he founded, about 30 km from Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh on the banks of river Betwa. He also established the Bhoj Shala which was a centre for Sanskrit studies and a temple of Sarasvatī in present day Dhar.
A branch of the Yadava clan belonging to Krishna's tribe.
A ghost, imp, goblin. Malignant spirits which haunt cemeteries, lurk in trees, animate dead bodies, and delude and devour human beings. A bhoot or bhut is a supernatural creature, usually the ghost of a deceased person, in the popular culture, literature and some ancient texts of the Indian subcontinent. Interpretations of how bhoots come into existence vary by region and community, but they are usually considered to be perturbed and restless due to some factor that prevents them from moving on (to transmigration, non-being, nirvana, or heaven or hell, depending on tradition). This could be a violent death, unsettled matters in their lives, or simply the failure of their survivors to perform proper funerals.
Name of Son of Bharatha. He became emperor of India after Bharat. Bhúmanyu means Emperor. Bhúmanyu / Bhoomanyu / Bhuvmanyu was the successor of first emperor of India, Bharata. Emperor Bharata, one of the greatest kings of ancient India, and founder of the eponymous dynasty, had nine sons from three wives. No son was worthy to become the next Emperor, Bhúmanyu was born out of a great sacrifice that Bharata performed for the sage Bharadwaja. Bhúmanyu was adopted by Bharata as his son.
Bhumanyu was made the next emperor. Bhumanyu's lineage is the story of the Mahabharat.
Another name of prince Uttara son of Virata who had proceeded to fight the Kaurava armies, with Brihannala as his charioteer.
Bhurisravas was a prince of the Balhikas and an ally of the Kauravas, who was killed in the great battle of the Mahabharata.
One of Arjuna's name meaning a hater of unworthy acts.
"Seed", A metaphor for the origin or cause of things, used in the teachings of the Yogacara school. In Hinduism and Buddhism, the Sanskrit term Bīja, literally seed, is used as a metaphor for the origin or cause of things and cognate with bindu. The Om bija in Esoteric Buddhism.
The metaphor is considerably extended in the Consciousness-only teachings of the Yogacara school of Buddhism. According to this theory, all experiences and actions produce bīja as impressions, stored in the alaya (storehouse) consciousness. The external world is produced when the seeds "perfume" this consciousness. This view of bīja has been equated to memes, with the theory itself positing an extreme form of memetics (i.e. reality and existence consist purely of memes).
In Vajrayana Buddhism and Hinduism, the term bīja is used for mystical "seed syllables" contained within mantras. These seeds do not have precise meanings, but are thought to carry connections to spiritual principles. The best-known bīja syllable is Om, first found in the Hindu scriptures the Upanishads.
Awakening or Enlightenment. Bodhi in Buddhism is the understanding possessed by a Buddha regarding the true nature of things. It is traditionally translated into English with the word enlightenment, though its literal meaning is closer to "awakened." The verbal root "budh" means to awaken.
Bodhi is presented in the Nikayas as knowledge of the causal mechanism by which beings incarnate into material form and experience suffering. Although its most common usage is in the context of Buddhism, the term buddhi is also used in other Indian philosophies and traditions.
The Sacred Fig (Ficus religiosa) tree under which Gautama reached Enlightenment. The Bodhi Tree, also known as Bo (from Sinhalese: Bo) and "peepal tree" in Nepal and Bhutan, was a large and very old sacred fig tree (Ficus religiosa) located in Bodh Gaya, India, under which Siddhartha Gautama, the spiritual teacher later known as Gautama Buddha, is said to have achieved enlightenment, or Bodhi. In religious iconography, the Bodhi tree is recognizable by its heart-shaped leaves, which are usually prominently displayed. Bodhi trees are planted in close proximity to every Buddhist monastery.
The term "Bodhi Tree" is also widely applied to currently existing trees, particularly the Sacred Fig growing at the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya, which is a direct descendant planted in 288 BC from the original specimen. This tree is a frequent destination for pilgrims, being the most important of the four main Buddhist pilgrimage sites. Other holy Bodhi trees which have a great significance in the history of Buddhism are the Anandabodhi tree in Sravasti and the Bodhi tree in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Both are believed to have been propagated from the original Bodhi tree.
The motivation of a bodhisattva. In Buddhism, bodhicitta, "enlightenment-mind", is the mind that strives toward awakening and compassion for the benefit of all sentient beings.
One with the intention to become a Buddha in order to liberate all other sentient beings from suffering. In Buddhism, a bodhisattva is an enlightened being (bodhi). The sattva part of the word means the quality (tva) of truth or goodness (sat) implying equanimity. Traditionally, a bodhisattva is anyone who, motivated by great compassion, has generated bodhicitta, which is a spontaneous wish to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. According to Tibetan Buddhism, a Bodhisattva is one of the four sublime states a human can achieve in life (the others being an Arhat, Buddha, or Pratyekabuddha).
Usage of the term bodhisattva has evolved over time. In early Indian Buddhism, for example, the term bodhisattva was primarily used to refer specifically to the Buddha in his former lives. The Jatakas, which are the stories of his lives, depict the various attempts of the bodhisattva to embrace qualities like self-sacrifice and morality. The bodhisattva is a popular subject in Buddhist art.
Example via www.mindpodnetwork.com: The Seven Steps of the Bodhisattva
Holy, living Buddha, living Boddhisattva. The title of Jebtsundamba Khutuktu; also title used with the names of highest Buddhist masters, e.g. boghda Tsongkhapa, Panchen boghda.
Creator of the universe, The Hindu creator god, and one of the Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. He must not be confused with the Supreme Cosmic Spirit of Hindu philosophy Brahman.
Brahmā is the Hindu god (deva) of creation. A mahākalpa, the large cosmic period, is one day and one night in Brahma's existence.
According to the Brahma Purana, he is the father of Manu, and from Manu all human beings are descended. In the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, he is often referred to as the progenitor or great grandsire of all human beings. He is not to be confused with the Supreme Cosmic Spirit in Hindu Vedānta philosophy known as Brahman, which is genderless. Brahmā's wife is Saraswati. Saraswati is also known by names such as Sāvitri and Gayatri, and has taken different forms throughout history. Brahmā is often identified with Prajapati, a Vedic deity. Being the husband of Saraswati or Vaac Devi (the Goddess of Speech), Brahma is also known as "Vaagish," meaning "Lord of Speech and Sound".
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The brahmavihāras (sublime attitudes, lit. "abodes of brahma") are a series of four Buddhist virtues and the meditation practices made to cultivate them. They are also known as the four immeasurables (Sanskrit: apramāṇa, Pāli: appamaññā).
According to the Metta Sutta, Gautama Buddha held that cultivation of the four immeasurables has the power to cause the practitioner to be reborn into a "Brahmā realm" (Pāli: Brahmaloka). The meditator is instructed to radiate out to all beings in all directions the mental states of:
The four immeasurables are also found in the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali (1.33), a text composed long after the beginning of Buddhism and substantially influenced by Buddhism. These virtues are also highly regarded by Buddhists as powerful antidotes to negative mental states (non-virtues) such as avarice, anger and pride.
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A religious student, unmarried, who lives with his spiritual guide, devoted to study and service. Brahmacharya literally means "going after Brahman (Supreme Reality, Self, God)". In Indian religions, it is also a concept with various context-driven meanings.
In one context, Brahmacharya is the first of four Ashrama (age-based stages) of a human life, with Grihastha (householder), Vanaprastha (forest dweller) and Sannyasa (renunciation) being the other three Asramas. Brahmacharya (bachelor student) stage of one's life, up to 25 years of age, was focused on education and included the practice of celibacy. In Indian traditions, it connotes chastity during student stage of life for the purposes of learning from a guru (teacher), and during later stages of life for the purposes of attaining spiritual liberation (moksha).
In another context, Brahmacharya is a virtue, where it means celibacy when unmarried, and fidelity when married. It represents a virtuous lifestyle that also includes simple living, meditation and other behaviors.
Among the Hindu, Jain and Buddhist monastic traditions, Brahmacharya implies, among other things, mandatory renouncing of sex and marriage. It is considered necessary for a monk's spiritual practice. These characteristics mirror the Western notions of the religious life as practiced in monastic settings.
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King of Benares.
The signifying name given to the concept of the unchanging, infinite, immanent and transcendent reality that is the Divine Ground of all being. Brahman is a spiritual concept in Hinduism, and it connotes the highest Universal, the Ultimate Reality in the universe. It is, in major schools of Hindu philosophy, the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists. It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind the diversity in all that exists in the universe.
Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in Vedas, and extensively discussed in the early Upanishads. The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principles. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (being-consciousness-bliss) and as the highest reality.
Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being, and therein it shares conceptual framework of God in major world religions. In non-dual schools of Hinduism such as the monist Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, Brahman is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.
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A divine weapon, irresistible, one given by Lord Brahma himself. In ancient Sanskrit writings, the Brahmastra (IAST: Brahmāstra) was a weapon created by Brahma, along with its more powerful versions like Brahmashirsha astra and Brahmanda astra. Brahmastra and Brahmashirsha astra are said to be mythical and is far more any equivalent of modern day weapons, so powerful that they can destroy multidimensional physical region at once.
One of four fundamental colours in Hindu caste (Varna) consisting of scholars, priests and spiritual teachers. Brahmin is a varna in Vedic Hinduism and also a caste of people who are members of it. Members are subdivided into numerous communities known as gotras.
Brahmin priests and teachers (acharya) were engaged in attaining the highest 'spiritual' knowledge (brahmavidya) of Brahman and adhered to different branches (shakhas) of the Vedas. The Brahmin priest is responsible for religious rituals in temples and homes of Hindus and is a person authorized after rigorous training in vedas and 'sacred' rituals, and as a liaison between humans and the God. In general, as family vocations and businesses are inherited, priesthood used to be inherited among Brahmin priestly families, as it requires years of practice of vedas from childhood after proper introduction to student life through a religious initiation called upanayana at the age of about five.
Some Brahmins were also warriors. Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa, son of a Brahmin sage Parashara and a fisher woman Satyavathi, in his Mahabharata, describes several warriors belonging to Brahmin castes/tribes, such as Dronacharya, Ashwatthama, Kripacharya, Parashurama etc., who were professors in the schools of martial arts and the art of war.
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Father of Kacha and priest of devas. Bṛhaspati (Sanskrit: "lord of prayer or devotion", often written as Brihaspati or Bruhaspati) also known as Deva-guru (guru of the gods) and Chakshas, is a Hindu god and a Vedic deity. He is considered the personification of piety and religion, and the chief 'offerer of prayers and sacrifices to the gods' (Sanskrit: Purohita), with whom he intercedes on behalf of humankind.
He is the guru of the Devas (gods) and the nemesis of Shukracharya, the guru of the Danavas (demons). He is also known as Ganapati (leader of the group [of planets]), and Guru (teacher), the god of wisdom and eloquence.
He is described as of yellow or golden color and holding the following divine attributes: a stick, a lotus and beads. He presides over 'Guru-var' or Thursday.
In astrology, Bṛhaspati is the regent of Jupiter and is often identified with the planet.
A great sage who visited the Pandavas during their forest hermitage and reminded them of King Nala of Nishadha who also lost his kingdom in the game of dice and who deserted his wife Damayanti because of a curse but ultimately regained both.
Brihadratha (IAST: Bṛhadratha), also known as Maharatha, was the founder of the Barhadratha dynasty, the earliest ruling dynasty of Magadha. According to the Mahabharata and the Puranas, he was the eldest of the five sons of Vasu, the Kuru king of Chedi and his queen Girika. The name of Brihadratha is also found in the Rigveda (I.36.18, X.49.6). Commander of three regiments reigned over Magadha and attained celebrity as a great hero, married the twin daughters of the Raja of Kasi. His two wives ate each half of a mango given by sage Kausika and begot half a child each. A Rakshasi recovered the two portions from a dustbin wherein they were thrown and when they accidentally came together, they became a chubby baby, which she presented to the king, saying it was his child, which later became known as Jarasandha.
A King, a disciple of sage Raibhya.
Name assumed by Arjuna while living at Virata's court in incognito. He taught arts to Uttarā, the princess of the kingdom of Virata. Brihannala (also written as Brihannada, Brihannata, or Vrihannala), was the name assumed by Arjuna in the Hindu epic Mahabharata. Arjuna spent the one year of his exile as Brihannala at King Virata’s Matsya Kingdom. He taught song and dance to the princess Uttara.
A daring warrior who charged at Abhimanyu caught in the Kaurava army's net.
A town on the site of an ancient forest which is the region where Lord Krishna spent his childhood days. It lies in the Braj region. Vrindavan (About this sound pronunciation (help·info)) is a town in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the site of a forested region, where, according to the Mahabharata, Krishna spent his childhood days.
The town is about 10 km away from Mathura, the city of Lord Krishna's birthplace, near the Agra-Delhi highway. The town hosts hundreds of temples dedicated to the worship of Radha and Krishna and is considered sacred by a number of religious traditions such as Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Vaishnavism, and Hinduism in general. Govindadev temple, Gopinath temple and Ranganath Mandir are the most prominent and popular places in the town.
A Buddha; also, the Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama. In Buddhism, buddhahood is the state of perfect enlightenment attained by a buddha; Pali/Sanskrit for "awakened one".
In Theravada Buddhism, Buddha refers to one who has become enlightened through their own efforts and insight, without a teacher to point out the Dharma (Sanskrit; Pali dhamma; "right way of living"). A samyak sambuddha teaches the dharma to others after his awakening. A pratyeka-buddha also reaches Nirvana through his own efforts, but does not teach the dharma to others. An Arhat needs to follow the teaching of a Buddha to attain Nirvana, but can also preach the dharma after attaining Nirvana. In one instance the term buddha is also used in Theravada to refer to all who attain Nirvana, using the term Sāvakabuddha to designate an Arhat, someone who depends on the teachings of a Buddha to attain Nirvana. In this broader sense it is equivalent to Arahant.
The uncreated and deathless Buddhic element or principle concealed within all sentient beings to achieve Awakening; the innate (latent) Buddha essence (esp. in the Tathagatagarbha sutras, Tendai/Tiantai, Nichiren thought).
Buddha-nature or Buddha Principle refers to several related terms, most notably Tathāgatagarbha and Buddhadhātu. Tathāgatagarbha means "the womb" or "embryo" (garbha) of the "thus-gone" (tathagata), or "containing a tathagata", while Buddhadhātu literally means "Buddha-realm" or "Buddha-substrate".
A nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: dhamma), that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").
According to Buddhist tradition, the Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. He is recognized by Buddhists as an awakened or enlightened teacher who shared his insights to help sentient beings end their suffering through the elimination of ignorance and craving. Buddhists believe that this is accomplished through direct understanding and the perception of dependent origination and the Four Noble Truths.