Dadhichi was a Vedic king, son of Atharvan, who turned a great Rishi. Dadhicha gave his bones to destroy Vritra, a brahmin, who became the head of the Asuras. Dadhichi, also known as Dadhyancha, is an important character in Hindu mythology.He was the one of the greatest devotees of Lord Shiva. It is believed that after Shiva had been separated from Shakti, he had kept himself all alone in a jungle and on an annual festival of Maha Shivratri, Lord Shiva had first time appeared in front of his devotees as rishi Dadhichi and his disciples were offering him prayers. He is revered amongst the greatest of sages and is portrayed as an example that no sacrifice is too great when the result is the good of the world. His bones are used as a symbol on India's highest award for gallantry "Param Vir Chakra" as "vajra". He was among one of the greatest among clan of bhrigus. He is credited with giving up his life in order to allow the Gods (Devatas) to make weapons from his bones to defeat the Demons (Asurs), recapture Heaven (Svargalok) and release all the world's water for all living beings.
Dadhichi was the son of sage Atharvan and his wife Chitti (Bhaagvat Puraan, 4/1). Atharvan who is also known as Bhrigu rishi (Manas putra of Brahma) attained the name the Atharvan as he authored ("Heard") Atharvaveda. Chitti was sage Kardam's daughter. Dadhichi's wife's name was Swarcha and his son was Pippalada rishi, a great sage himself, who is supposed to be associated with the Pippalada school of thought and associated with the origin of the Praśna Upanishad. He had established his ashram in Misrikh, in Naimisharanya near Lucknow, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.Naimisharanya has been cited in all of the puranas as the place of his ashram, where it is still in existence. The current place of Sabarmati Ashram in Ahemdabad, is also one of the ancient sites of his ashram. In the ancient times sages used to travel long distances, so may be he stayed near sabarmati river for some time. His name is seen to occur in the 1st mandala of Rigveda (Bhagavata Purana, Srimad Devi Bhagavatam and in the Puranas). He is said to be the forefather of many other great rishis and various clans, such as the Dadheech Brahmins / Shaiva Brahmins (Dynasty/clan) in India claim to be his descendants.
Dadhichi is believed to have authoured the famous composition of "Narayana Kavacham", which is a famous hymn in southern India and sung for power and peace. He was a passer-by of Madhuvidhya to ashvin kumars which he learned himself from others.
Daityas were the children of Diti and the sage Kashyapa. They were a race of giants who fought against the gods. In Hindism, the Daityas are a clan or race of Asura as are the Danavas. Daityas were the children of Diti and the sage Kashyapa. They were a race of giants who fought against the Devas because they were jealous of their Deva half-brothers. The female Daityas are described as wearing jewelry the size of boulders. Manu Smriti (XII - 48) classifies Daityas as ones possessing the quality of goodness but places them at a level lower than Gods: "Hermits, ascetics, Brahmanas, the crowds of the Vaimanika deities, the lunar mansions, and the Daityas (form) the first (and lowest rank of the) existences caused by Goodness."
A supernatural female with volatile temperament who serves as a muse for spiritual practice. Dakinis are often depicted naked to represent the truth. A ḍākinī is a type of spirit in Vajrayana Buddhism. The Sanskrit term is likely related to the term for drumming, while the Tibetan term means "sky goer" and may have originated in the Sanskrit khecara, a term from the Cakrasaṃvara Tantra. Dakinis are often represented as consorts in Yab-Yum representations. The masculine form of the word is ḍāka, which is usually translated into Tibetan as pawo "hero" (Wylie: dpa' bo).
The dakini (and the daka) appeared in medieval legends in North India (such as in the Bhagavata Purana, Brahma Purana, Markandeya Purana and Kathasaritsagara) as a demon in the train of Kali who feeds on human flesh. They are comparable to malevolent or vengeful female spirits, deities, imps or fairies in other cultures, such as the Persian peri.
As a key tantric figure, the dakini does appear in Tangmi; the dakini figure disseminated into Japanese culture from Shingon Buddhism, evolving into the dakini-ten ("ten" means "deva" in Japanese), becoming linked to the kitsune iconography.
The dakini appears in a Vajrayana formulation of the Three Jewels' Buddhist refuge formula, known as the Three Roots. Most commonly she appears as the dharmapala, alongside a guru and yidam.
The dakini, in her various guises, serves as each of the Three Roots. She may be a human guru, a vajra master who transmits the Vajrayana teachings to her disciples and joins them in samaya commitments. The wisdom dakini may be a yidam, a meditational deity; female deity yogas such as Vajrayogini are common in Tibetan Buddhism. Or she may be a protector; the wisdom dakinis have special power and responsibility to protect the integrity of oral transmissions".
The archetypal dakini in Tibetan Buddhism is Yeshe Tsogyal, consort of Padmasambhava.
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The skilled one, is an ancient creator god, one of the Prajapatis, the Rishis and the Adityas, and a son of Brahma. According to Hindu legend, Daksha is one of the sons of Lord Brahma, who, after creating the ten Manas Putras, created Daksha, Dharma, Kamadeva and Agni from his right thumb, chest, heart and eyebrows respectively. Besides his noble birth, Daksa was a great king. Pictures show him as a rotund and obese man with a stocky body, protruding belly, and muscular with the head of an ibex-like creature with spiral horns.
Dākshāyani is the Goddess of marital felicity and longevity; she is worshipped particularly by ladies to seek the long life of their husbands. An aspect of Devi, Dākshāyani is the consort of Shiva. Other names for Dākshāyani include Gaurī, Umā, Satī, Aparnā, Lalithā, Sivakāmini.
Satī, also known as Dakshayani, is a Hindu goddess of marital felicity and longevity. An aspect of Adi Parashakti, Dakshayani is the first consort of Shiva, the second being Parvati, the reincarnation of Sati herself.
In Hindu legend, both Sati and Parvati successively play the role of bringing Shiva away from ascetic isolation into creative participation in the world. The act of Sati, in which a Hindu widow immolates herself on her husband's funeral pyre as a final and consummate act of loyalty and devotion, is patterned after the deed committed by this goddess to uphold the honour of her husband.
"The lama with wisdom like an ocean", secular and spiritual leader of Tibet as nominated by the Mongols. The Dalai Lama is a monk of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Je Tsongkhapa. The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso.
The Dalai Lama is considered to be the successor in a line of tulkus who are believed to be incarnations of Avalokiteśvara, the Bodhisattva of Compassion. The name is a combination of the Mongolic word dalai meaning "ocean" and the Tibetan word བླ་མ་ (bla-ma) meaning "guru, teacher, mentor". The Tibetan word "lama" corresponds to the better known Sanskrit word "guru".
From 1642 until the 1950s the Dalai Lama or his regent headed the Tibetan government or Ganden Phodrang which, except for minor periods, ruled over all or most of the Tibetan plateau from Lhasa with varying degrees of autonomy, being generally subject to first Mongol (1642-1720) and then Manchu (1720-1912) patronage and protection.
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Damayanti, a character in Hindu mythology, was the princess of Vidarbha Kingdom, who married king Nala of Nishadha Kingdom and their story is told in the Mahabharata. Her other lesser known name is Bhaimi.
Generosity or giving; in Buddhism, it also refers to the practice of cultivating generosity. Dāna is a Sanskrit and Pali word that connotes the virtue of generosity, charity or giving of alms in Indian philosophies. Some scholars spell it as Daana.
In Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, dāna is the practice of cultivating generosity. It can take the form of giving to an individual in distress or need. It can also take the form of philanthropic public projects that empower and help many.
According to historical records, dāna is an ancient practice in Indian traditions, tracing back to Vedic traditions.
A kingdom and a forest, had the same name, was a colonial state of Lanka under the reign of Ravana. Ravana's governor Khara ruled this province. It was the stronghold of all the Rakshasa tribes living in the Dandaka Forest.
Dandaka was the name of aranya or forest, lying between the Godavari and Narmada. It was of vast extent, and some passages of the Ramayana represent it as beginning immediately south of the Yamuna. This forest is the scene of many of Rama and Sita's adventures, and is described as "a wilderness over which separate hermitage are scattered, while wild beasts and Rakshasas everywhere abound."
Dandak was also the kingdom, a colonial state of Lanka under the reign of Ravana. Ravana's governor Khara ruled this province. It was the stronghold of all the Rakshasa tribes living in the Dandaka Forest.
Darshan, (Sanskrit: “auspicious viewing”), also spelled darshana, in Hindu worship, the beholding of a deity (especially in image form), revered person, or sacred object. The experience is often conceived to be reciprocal and results in the human viewer’s receiving a blessing. The Rathayatras (chariot festivals), in which images of gods are taken in procession through the streets, enable even those who in former days were not allowed to enter the temple to have darshan of the deity. Darshan is also imparted by gurus (personal spiritual teachers) to their followers, by rulers to their subjects, and by objects of veneration such as pilgrimage shrines to their visitors.
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Sri Krishna's charioteer.
Servant, in the male form. "Dasi" is the female form of das.
A country whose king attacked Bhagadatta's elephant in an effort to save Bhima.
King of Ayodhya and Rama's father. Dasharatha (Sanskrit:, IAST Daśaratha) was, according to Ramayana, the king of Ayodya and a descendant of the Ikshvaku dynasty (also known as Suryavamsha or Raghuvaṃśa). His life story is narrated principally in the Hindu epic Ramayana. He was a descendant of Raghu and was the father of prince Rama, theprincipal character in the Ramayana, Bharata, and Laksmana. Dasharatha was the son of Aja and Indumati. He had Jhalli as mahamantri of his great kingdom. Sumanth was also a trusted minister of his kingdom. He had 360 wives. Out them, only three are his queen consorts. They are : Kaushalya - the elsest one , Sumitra - the most intelligent one and Kaikeyi - the youngest one. He loved Kausalya and Sumitra dearly but after marrying Kaikeyi, he stopped spending time with other queens for fear that Kaikeyi would get angry.
Dasharna was an ancient Indian kingdom in Malwa region near Mandsaur. The queen of Chedi kingdom and mother of Damayanti were daughters of king of Dasharna.
Dasharna was an ancient Indian janapada (realm) in eastern Malwa region between the Dhasan River and the Betwa River. The name of the janapada was derived from the Daśārṇa, the ancient name of the Dhasan River. The janapada was also known as Akara and Rudradaman I in his Junagarh rock inscription referred to this region by this name. Kalidasa in his Meghaduta (Purvamegha,24-25) mentioned the city of Vidisha as the capital of Dasharna. Other important cities of this janapada were Erakina and Erikachha. According to the Mahabharata, the queen of king Virabahu or Subahu of Chedi kingdom and the queen of king Bhima of Vidarbha (the mother of Damayanti) were daughters of the king of Dasharna.
A supernatural being that has generally been described as a malevolent spirit. A demon is frequently depicted as a force that may be conjured and insecurely controlled, they were constantly at war with devas.
A demon, daemon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimonion), or fiend is a supernatural, often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore. The original Greek word daimon does not carry the negative connotation initially understood by implementation of the Koine δαιμόνιον (daimonion), and later ascribed to any cognate words sharing the root.
In Ancient Near Eastern religions as well as in the Abrahamic traditions, including ancient and medieval Christian demonology, a demon is considered an unclean spirit, a fallen angel, or a spirit of unknown type which may cause demonic possession, calling for an exorcism. In Western occultism and Renaissance magic, which grew out of an amalgamation of Greco-Roman magic, Jewish Aggadah and Christian demonology, a demon is believed to be a spiritual entity that may be conjured and controlled.
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Deva is the Sanskrit word for deity. Its related feminine term is devi. Devas, in Hinduism, can be loosely described as any benevolent supernatural being. In Hinduism, Devas are also called Suras and are often mentioned in the same context as their half-brothers the Asuras. Devas are also the maintainers of the realms as ordained by the Trimurti. They are often warring with their equally powerful counterparts, the Asuras.
Many different types of non-human beings who share the characteristics of being more powerful, longer-lived, and, in general, living more contentedly than the average human being. A deva (देव Sanskrit and Pāli) in Buddhism is one of many different types of non-human beings who share the characteristics of being more powerful, longer-lived, and, in general, much happier than humans, although none of them are worthy of worship.
Synonyms in other languages include Khmer tep, or preah, Myanmar language nat, Tibetan lha, Mongolian tenger, Chinese tiān rén, Korean cheon, Japanese ten, Vietnamese thiên, Thai thep, thewa, thewada, etc. The concept of devas was adopted in Japan partly because of the similarity to the Shinto's concept of kami.
Other words used in Buddhist texts to refer to similar supernatural beings are dēvatā (देवता; "deity") and dēvaputra (Pāli: devaputta; "son of god"). It is unclear what the distinction between these terms is.
Name of Arjuna's conch, also Buddha's cousin. Devadatta was by tradition a Buddhist monk, cousin and brother-in-law of Gautama Siddārtha, the Śākyamuni Buddha, and brother of Ānanda, a principal student of the Buddha. Devadatta was a Shakyan and is said to have parted from the Buddha's following with 500 other monks to form their own Sangha, most of whom are said to have been Shakya clan relatives of both Devadatta and Siddhartha.
In Hinduism, Devaki is the wife of Vasudeva and mother of Krishna. She was the mother of the Devas.
A sage who condemned the game of dice as an evil form of gambling and declared it unfit as entertainment for good people, as it usually offered scope for deceit and dishonesty. In Hinduism, Devala was one of the great rishis or sages. He is acknowledged to be a great authority like Narada and Vyasa and is mentioned by Arjuna in Bhagavad Gita (10.13).
Father of Yajnavalkya, the gods had given him a great bow and neither gods, nor gandharvas, nor asuras, nor rākshsa, nor men had might to string that.
The eighth child of Santanu and Ganga who in time mastered the art yielding arms and learned the Vedas and Vedanta as also the sciences known to Sukra was crowned Yuvaraja (heir apparent), but later vowed to celibacy and was known as Bhishma.
The beautiful daughter of Shukracharaya, preceptor of the demons, who fell in love with Kacha, son of Brihaspati, preceptor of the Devas. In Hindu mythology, Devayani was the daughter of Shukracharya and his wife Jayanti, daughter of Indra. In her early life, she was rejected by Kacha, the son of Brihaspati. Thus Devyani cursed him he will never be able to use his knowledge, in turn Kacha also cursed Devayani that she would not get married to any devas.
She later married Yayati, son of Nahusha whom she encountered when the princess Sharmishtha pushed her into a well. Devayani asked Yayati to marry her as he had clasped her hand while lifting her out of the well. Yayati and Devayani had two sons, Yadu and Turvasu. Devayani also means "main goddess" or "mastermind". Devayani is also like beautiful, faithful, trustworthy, kind, and many other wonderful things.
King of the Gods. The original Indra was also referred to as Devendra. Indra, also known as Śakra in the Vedas, is the leader of the Devas and the lord of Svargaloka or heaven in Hinduism. He is the deva of rain and thunderstorms. He wields a lightning thunderbolt known as vajra and rides on a white elephant known as Airavata. Indra is the most important deity worshiped by the Rigvedic tribes and is the son of Dyaus and the goddess Savasi. His home is situated on Mount Meru in the heaven. He has many epithets, notably vṛṣan the mighty, and vṛtrahan, slayer of Vṛtra, Meghavahana "the one who rides the clouds" and Devapati "the lord of devas". Indra appears as the name of a daeva in Zoroastrianism (though 'Indra' can be used in a general sense for a leader, either of devatas or asuras), while his epithet, Verethragna, appears as a god of victory. Indra is also called Śakra frequently in the Vedas and in Buddhism (Pali: Sakka). He is known in Thai as พระอินทร์ Phra In, in Khmer as ព្រះឥន្ទ្រា pronounced [preah ʔəntraa], in Malay as Indera,in Kannada as ಇಂದ್ರ Indra, in Telugu as ఇంద్రుడు Indrudu, in Tamil as Inthiran, Chinese as Dìshìtiān, and in Japanese as Taishakuten. He is celebrated as a demiurge who pushes up the sky, releases Ushas (dawn) from the Vala cave, and slays Vṛtra; both latter actions are central to the Soma sacrifice. He is associated with Vajrapani - the Chief Dharmapala or Defender and Protector of the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha who embodies the power of the Five Dhyani Buddhas. On the other hand, he also commits many kinds of mischief (kilbiṣa) for which he is sometimes punished. In the Puranas, Indra is bestowed with a heroic and almost brash and amorous character at times, even as his reputation and role diminished in later Hinduism with the rise of the Trimurti.
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The female version of a Deva, i.e. a female deity or goddess. Devi is considered to be the Supreme Goddess in Shaktism. Devī (is the Sanskrit root-word of Divine; its related masculine term is Deva. Devi is synonymous with Shakti, the female aspect of the divine, as conceptualized by the Shakta tradition of Hinduism. She is the female counterpart without whom the male aspect, which represents consciousness or discrimination, remains impotent and void. Goddess worship is an integral part of Hinduism.
Devi is, quintessentially, the core form of every Hindu Goddess. As the female manifestation of the supreme lord, she is also called Prakriti, as she balances out the male aspect of the divine addressed Purusha.
Devi or Durga is the supreme Being in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, while in the Smartha tradition, she is one of the five primary forms of God. In other Hindu traditions, Devi embodies the active energy and power of male deities (Purushas), such as Vishnu in Vaishnavism or Shiva in Shaivism. Vishnu's shakti counterpart is called Lakshmi, with Parvati being the female shakti of Shiva.
Worship of the Divine Mother.
A symbolic representation of the dharma, also known as the Wheel of Dharma. The dharmacakra, often written dharmachakra in English, is one of the Ashtamangala that has represented the dharma, the Buddha's teaching of the path to Nirvana, since the time of early Buddhism.
A versified Buddhist scripture traditionally ascribed to the Buddha. The Dhammapada is a collection of sayings of the Buddha in verse form and one of the most widely read and best known Buddhist scriptures. The original version of the Dhammapada is in the Khuddaka Nikaya, a division of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism.
The Buddhist scholar and commentator Buddhaghosa explains that each saying recorded in the collection was made on a different occasion in response to a unique situation that had arisen in the life of the Buddha and his monastic community. His commentary, the Dhammapada Atthakatha, presents the details of these events and is a rich source of legend for the life and times of the Buddha.
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A fearsome deity, known as protector of the Dharma. In Vajrayana Buddhism, a dharmapāla (Wylie: chos skyong) is a type of wrathful deity. The name means "Dharma-defender" in Sanskrit, and the dharmapālas are also known as the Defenders of the Law (Dharma), or the Protectors of the Law, in English.
The dharma and vinaya (roughly "doctrine and discipline") considered together. This term essentially means the whole teachings of Buddhism as taught to monks.
A great sage whom Medhavi, son of sage Baladhi, once insulted. He took the form of a bull and butted at that mountain and broke it to pieces. Then Medhavi fell down dead.
An avatar of the Hindu God Vishnu. Dhanvantari appears in the Vedas as the physician of the gods, and is the god of Ayurvedic medicine. Dhanvantari is an Avatar of Vishnu from the Hindu tradition. He appears in the Vedas and Puranas as the physician of the gods (devas), and the god of Ayurvedic medicine. It is common practice in Hinduism for worshipers to pray to Dhanvantari seeking his blessings for sound health for themselves and/or others, especially on Dhanteras.
Righteous course of conduct. Can mean law, rule or duty. Beings that live in harmony with Dharma proceed quicker towards moksha. Dharma (Sanskrit: dharma, Pali: dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. There is no single word translation for dharma in western languages.
Hinduism: Dharma signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with rta, the order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and "right way of living". In Buddhism dharma means "cosmic law and order", but is also applied to the teachings of the Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy, dhamma/dharma is also the term for "phenomena". In Jainism dharma refers to the teachings of the Jinas and the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings. For Sikhs, the word dharm means the "path of righteousness".
The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma is a derivation from the root dhṛ, which has a meaning of "to hold, maintain, keep". The word "dharma" was already in use in the historical Vedic religion, and its meaning and conceptual scope has evolved over several millennia. The antonym of dharma is adharma.
Buddhism: Often refers to the doctrines and teachings of the faith, but it may have broader uses. Also, it is an important technical term meaning something like "phenomenological constituent." This leads to the potential for confusion, puns, and double entendres, as the latter meaning often has negative connotations.
Dharma (Sanskrit) or Dhamma (Pali) in Buddhism can have the following meanings:
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Assumed named of Nakula at Virata's court.
The delighted of Dharma, a name of Yudhishthira, the son of Dharma or Yama.
The son of Yama, epithet of Yudhishthira.
He possessed the secret of good life and lived in the city of Mithila. He was a meat-seller.
Sons of Dhritarashtra.
Preceptor of the Pandavas, who accompanied them during their exile to the Kurujangala forest, singing Sama hymns addressed to Yama, Lord of Death.
Supreme commander of the Pandava forces and twin brother of Draupadi. Dhrishtadyumna (Sanskrit: dhṛṣṭadyumna, meaning "daring [and having] splendor" or similar), also known as Draupada, was the son of Drupada and brother of Draupadi and Shikhandi in the epic Mahabharata. He was the commander of the Pandava army during the Kurukshetra War. Dhrishtadyumna killed Drona, the royal guru, when he was meditating which was against the rules of engagement. Drona's son Ashwatthama, then killed Prince Dhrishtadyumna, on the 18th night of the war.
Dhrishtaketu may be 1. A son of Dhrishtadyumna. 2. A son of Sisupala, king of Chedi, and an ally of the Pandavas. 3. A king of the Kekayas, also an ally of the Pandavas. 4. Son of Satyadhriti. 5. Son of Nriga. Dhristaketu, the king of Chedi (3,12), was described as the elder son of King Sisupala (5,50). During the time of Dhristaketu also, Suktimati was the capital of Chedi. Dhristaketu was an army-general in the army of Pandavas in Kurukshetra War. He was the leader of the army of the Chedis, the Kasis, and the Karushas (5,199). He was a Maharatha (a great car-warrior) as per the rating of Bhishma (5,172). One of his sons also took part in the war (5,57). He was slain by Drona (7,128), (11,25). Dhristaketu also was slain in battle by Drona.
Elder son of Vichitravirya and Ambika, born blind, father of Duryodhana. In the Mahabharata, Dhritarashtra (Sanskrit: dhṛtarāshtra) is the King of Hastinapur at the time of the Kurukshetra War, the epic's climactic event. He was born the son of Vichitravirya's first wife Ambika, and was fathered by Ved Vyas. He was blind from birth, and became father to a hundred and one sons (and one daughter) by his wife Gandhari (Gāndhārī). These children, including the eldest son Duryodhana, came to be known as the Kauravas. Dhritarashtra was half-brother of Pandu and Vidura, and was uncle to the five Pandavas, with whom his sons fought the Kurukshetra War. Throughout his reign as King of Hastinapur, Dhritarashtra was torn between the principles of dharma and his love for his son Duryodhana, and often ended up endorsing his son's actions merely out of fatherly love. Thus Dhritarashtra essentially presided over the fall of Hastinapur's kingdom. All of his sons perished in the war, with the exception of Yuyutsu, his son with Gandhari's lady-in-waiting Sughada, who fought on the Pandava side. Dhritarashtra appears in Mahābhārata sections that have been circulated as separate scriptures, most notably the Bhagavad Gita, whose dialogue was narrated to him.
Versions of the story generally portray Dhritarashtra across a spectrum. On one end he is being a good king whose only flaw is his blind love for his son, while the other end him being a cruel and adharmic king who, while saying that he only supports Duryodhana because he is too weak to reject him, actually desires for his line to have power at the expense of the Pandavas. Dhritarashtra is also portrayed as a hypocrite who says that he wants his nephews to win, but at heart, wants his children to win.
Dhruva was the prince blessed to eternal existence and glory as the Pole Star (Dhruva Nakshatra in Sanskrit) by Lord Vishnu. The story of Dhruva's life is often told to children as an example for perseverance, devotion, steadfastness and fearlessness. Dhruva is a devotee of the Supreme God Vishnu according to Hinduism. Dhruva was the son of Uttānapāda. His tale is recorded in the Vishnu Purana and the Bhagavata Purana.
The Grey-eye rākshasha appointed by Rāvana who was slain by Hanumāna.
Dhyāna (Sanskrit) or Jhāna (Pali) means meditation in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. In Buddhism, it is a series of cultivated states of mind, which lead to "state of perfect equanimity and awareness (upekkhii-sati-piirisuddhl)."
Dhyana may have been the core practice of pre-sectarian Buddhism, but became appended with other forms of meditation throughout its development.
Diksha also spelled deeksha or deeksa in common usage, translated as a "preparation or consecration for a religious ceremony", is giving of a mantra or an initiation by the guru in Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Diksa is given in a one-to-one ceremony, and typically includes the taking on of a serious spiritual discipline. The word is derived from the Sanskrit root dā ("to give") plus kṣi ("to destroy") or alternately from the verb root dīkṣ ("to consecrate"). When the mind of the guru and the disciple become one, then we say that the disciple has been initiated by the guru.
Diksa can be of various types, through the teacher's sight, touch, or word, with the purpose of purifying the disciple or student. Initiation by touch is called sparśa dīkṣā. The bestowing of divine grace through diksa is sometimes called śaktipāt.
Vishnu Yamala (tantra) says: "The process that bestows divyam jnanam (transcendental, spiritual knowledge) and destroys sin (pāpa), the seed of sin and ignorance, is called diksha by the spiritual persons who have seen the Truth (desikais tattva-kovidaih)."
Different traditions and sects treat diksa in various ways. Tantra mentions five types of initiation or diksa: initiation by a ritual or samaya-diksa; sparsa-diksa is an initiation by touch and is done without a ritual; vag-diksa is done by word or mantra; sambhavi-diksa is arising from perception of external appearance of the guru; mano-diksa is when initiation is performed in the mind. For ISKCON members first diksa, or harinama-diksa initiation, is performed as part of a fire sacrifice where grains, fruit, and ghee are placed on an open fire of the sacrifice. In the tradition of Lahiri Mahasaya, initiation into Kriya Yoga is given as diksa. The Bengali saint Anandamayi Ma often gave sparśa dīkṣā (divine touch) or drik diksa (through her look), in which she would bestow śaktipāt (divine grace).
Another type of diksa, into a monastic order, involves a vow of celibacy, renunciation of all personal possessions and of all worldly duties, including family ties. Diksha has the same meaning in Jainism. Diksha is also called Charitra or Mahanibhiskraman in Jainism. Initiation in Hinduism involves performing one of several rituals depending on the person being initiated and the Hindu group involved.
Various tantric works enumerate different types of disksha rituals:
Son of Anshumat and father of Bhāgīratha.
Dīpankara, one of the Buddhas of the past, said to have lived on Earth one hundred thousand years.
Theoretically, the number of Buddhas having existed is enormous and they are often collectively known under the name of "Thousand Buddhas". Each was responsible for a life cycle. According to some Buddhist traditions, Dīpankara (also Dīpamkara) was a Buddha who reached enlightenment eons prior to Gautama, the historical Buddha.
Generally, Buddhists believe that there has been a succession of many Buddhas in the distant past and that many more will appear in the future; Dīpankara, then, would be one of numerous previous Buddhas, while Gautama was the most recent, and Maitreya will be the next Buddha in the future.
Chinese Buddhism tends to honor Dīpankara as one of many Buddhas of the past. Dīpankara, Gautama (Buddha of the present), and Maitreya (Buddha of the future), collectively form the Buddhas of Three Times.
Diwali (or Deepavali, the "festival of lights") is an ancient Hindu festival celebrated in autumn every year. Diwali is the biggest and the brightest festival in India. The festival spiritually signifies the victory of light over darkness. The festival preparations and rituals typically extend over a five-day period, but the main festival night of Diwali coincides with the darkest, new moon night of the Hindu Lunisolar month Kartika. In the Gregorian calendar, Diwali falls between mid-October and mid-November.
Before Diwali night, people clean, renovate and decorate their homes and offices. On Diwali night, Hindus dress up in new clothes or their best outfit, light up diyas (lamps and candles) inside and outside their home, participate in family puja (prayers) typically to Lakshmi – the goddess of wealth and prosperity. After puja, fireworks follow, then a family feast including mithai (sweets), and an exchange of gifts between family members and close friends. Diwali also marks a major shopping period in nations where it is celebrated.
Diwali is an important festival for Hindus. The name of festive days as well as the rituals of Diwali vary significantly among Hindus, based on the region of India. In many parts of India, the festivities start with Dhanteras, followed by Naraka Chaturdasi on second day, Diwali on the third day, Diwali Padva dedicated to wife–husband relationship on the fourth day, and festivities end with Bhau-beej dedicated to sister–brother bond on the fifth day. Dhanteras usually falls eighteen days after Dussehra.
On the same night that Hindus celebrate Diwali, Jains celebrate a festival of lights to mark the attainment of moksha by Mahavira, and Sikhs celebrate Bandi Chhor Divas. Diwali is an official holiday in Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Mauritius, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Suriname, Malaysia, Singapore, Fiji and Pakistan.
In Zen, a term for person sounding the bell that marks the beginning and end of Zazen.
A private meeting between a Zen student and the master. It is an important element in Rinzai Zen training, as it provides an opportunity for the student to demonstrate understanding.
Daughter of King Drupada, King of Panchala,who was born from fire. She was the sister of Dhrishyadyumna. She married all the five Pandavas though Arjuna had won her in the Swayamvara, because of the vow that they would share everything in common.
Draupadi (Sanskrit: draupadī) is described as the Tritagonist in the Hindu epic, Mahabharata. According to the epic, she is the "fire born" daughter of Drupada, King of Panchala and also became the common wife of the five Pandavas. She was the most beautiful woman of her time.
Draupadi had five sons; one by each of the Pandavas: Prativindhya from Yudhishthira, Sutasoma from Bheema, Srutakarma from Arjuna, Satanika from Nakula, and Srutasena from Sahadeva.
Draupadi is considered as one of the Panch-Kanyas or Five Virgins.
A Brāhman discovered by Bhīshma, Son of a Brahmana named Bharadwāja; married a sister of Kripa and a son Aswathama was born to them; learnt military art from Parasurama, the maser. Later he became the instructor to the Kaurava and Pandava princes in the use of arms. He was slain by Dhrishtadyumna in Mahabharata war.
In the epic Mahābhārata, Drona (Sanskrit: droṇa) or Dronacharya (Sanskrit: droṇācārya) was the royal guru to Kauravas and Pandavas. He was a master of advanced military arts, including the divine weapons or Divya Astras. Arjuna was his favorite student. Aśhvatthāma, another major combatant in the Kurukshetra war, is the son of Drona. He is the avatar of Bṛihaspati.
King of Panchala, Drona's friend, father of Draupadi who became the wife of the Pandavas.
Drupada, Drupad, Dhrupada, or Dhrupad. Also known as Yajnasena, is a character in the Mahābhārata. He is king of the land of Southern Panchala. The capital was known as Kamapilya. His father's name was Prishata.
Official certificate for monks and nuns issued by government.
Brother of Duryodhana who dragged Draupadi into the assembly hall and attempted to strip her naked after she had been lost as a wager by Yudhishtira. He eventually gave up when Krishna came to Draupadi's aid. The pandava Bhima killed him at Kurukshetra and drank his blood in accordance with the vow he had taken.
Suffering, dissatisfaction, stress. Dukkha is a Buddhist term commonly translated as "suffering", "anxiety", "stress", or "unsatisfactoriness". The principle of dukkha is one of the most important concepts in the Buddhist tradition. The Buddha is reputed to have said: "I have taught one thing and one thing only, dukkha and the cessation of dukkha." The classic formulation of these teachings on dukkha is the doctrine of the Four Noble Truths, in which the Truth of Dukkha (Pali: dukkha saccã; Sanskrit: duḥkha-satya) is identified as the first.
Dukkha is commonly explained according to three categories:
The Buddhist tradition emphasizes the importance of developing insight into the nature of dukkha, the conditions that cause it, and how it can be overcome. This process is formulated in the teachings on the Four Noble Truths.
Example via www.ramdass.org: Ayya Khema
Maharani Durdhara (died 320 BCE) was Empress of the Maurya Empire as the consort of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire. According to Jain texts, she was the mother of her husband's successor and the second Mauryan Emperor, Bindusara. She was the daughter of Dhana Nand. Her grandson was the third Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka the Great.
A form of Devi, the supreme goddess. She is depicted as a woman riding a lion with multiple hands carrying weapons and assuming mudras.
Durga (IAST: Durgā), meaning "the invincible" is the principal form of the Goddess, also known as Devi and Shakti in Hinduism. Durga the mahashakti, the form and formless, is the root cause of creation, preservation and annihilation. According to legend, Durga was created for the slaying of the buffalo demon Mahisasura by Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, and the lesser gods, who were otherwise powerless to overcome him. Embodying their collective energy (shakti), she is both derivative from the male divinities and the manifested representation of their power.
For Shaivas and Shaktas Durga is the wife of Shiva. For Vaishnavas Durga is another name/form of Uma or Parvati. This is especially prevalent in the Shakta denomination within Hinduism, which worships the Goddess Devi in all her manifestations. She is Goddess Lakshmi and Goddess Saraswati in her mild form; Goddess Kali and Goddess Chandi in her wrathful form. She is the intelligence in all beings and is referred as Chamundhaye. Durga is also called Padmanabha-Sahodari and Narayani, the sister of Lord Vishnu. To bring back lord Shiva in Sansar, she was reborn in human form (Sati and Parvati) to marry Shiva. Durga gave birth to his first child Kartikeya. Durga Puja, held annually in her honour, is one of the great festivals of eastern India.
A brother of Duryodhana who was sent to attack Bhima, to save Karna's life but lost his own.
Durjaya, now North Guwahati, was capital of Kamarupa kingdom under Pala Dynasty for the period 900 to 1100 C.E.
A son of Dhritarashtra killed by Bhima.
A son of Dhritarashtra who was killed by Bhima.
A chariot-borne warrior on the Kaurava side.
An ancient sage known for his anger who visited the Kauravas. Duryodhana asked him to visit his cousins, the Pandavas, hoping that they would incur his wrath.
In Hindu mythology, Durvasa(Durvāsa in IAST) or Durvasas, was an ancient Rishi, the son of Atri and Anasuya. He is supposed to be an incarnation of Shiva. He is known for his short temper. Hence, wherever he went, he was received with great reverence from humans and devas alike.
According to local tradition in modern Azamgarh, Durvasa's Ashram or hermitage, where many disciples used to go to study under him, was situated in the area, at the confluence of the Tons River and Majhuee rivers, 6 km north of the Phulpur Tehsil headquarters.
His one famous temple called Rishi Durvasa Temple is located in village-Aali Brahman, tehsil-Hodal, dist.-Palwal, Haryana(Hodal is on the Delhi-Mathura road from where the village and the temple is located at some distance).
A warrior fighting on the Kaurava side.
Duryodhana (Sanskrit: duryodhana) is a major character in the Hindu epic Mahabharata and was the eldest of the Kauravas, the hundred sons of blind king Dhritarashtra and Queen Gandhari. Despite being the first born son of the incumbent king, he becomes disqualified as heir to the throne of Hastinapura upon the return of his cousins, the Pandavas, who left their rural forest dwelling upon the death of their father Pandu, the preceding king of Hastinapura and younger brother to Dhrithrashtra. His resultant animosity towards his cousins renders Duryodhana the chief antagonist of the epic. Karna was the closest friend of Duryodhana. As per Mahabharata, Karna was the only warrior in that era who single-handedly conquered the entire world and he successfully conducted Digvijaya Yatra, conquering all kings in every direction of the world in order to establish Duryodhana as the emperor of the world. Karna made Duryodhana crowned as the emperor of the world by conducting the Vaishnava sacrifice while Pandavas were in exile.
A warrior belonging to the Kaurava side.
Dushyanta is a king in classical Indian literature and mythology. He was the husband of Shakuntala and the father of the Emperor Bharatha. He appears in the Mahabarata and in Kalidasa's play The Recognition of Sakuntala (c. 300 CE). His name is also transliterated as Dusyanta or Dushyant, and means "Destroyer of Evil" in Sanskrit.
A valiant king of the Lunar, race, and descended from Puru. He was husband of Sakuntala, by whom he had a son, Bharata. The loves of Dushyanta and Sakuntala, her separation from him, and her restoration through the discovery of his token-ring in the belly of a fish, form the plot of Kalidasa's celebrated play Sakuntala.
A son of Dhritarashtra killed by Bhima.
A branch of Hindu philosophy, founded by Shri Madhvacharyathat advocates dualism and stresses a strict distinction between God and souls.
Dvaita (also known as Bheda-vāda, Tattva-vāda and Bimba-pratibimba-vāda) is a school of Vedanta founded by Shri Madhvacharya (c. 1238-1317 CE) who was also known as Purna Prajna and Ananda Tirtha. Dvaita stresses a strict distinction between God—the Supreme-Soul (paramātmā —and the individual souls (jiivatma)). According to Madhvacharya, the individual souls of beings are not 'created' by God but do, nonetheless, depend on Him for their existence.
The Dvaita Forest or Dvaitavana was situated to the south of the Kamyaka Forest. It contained within it a lake called the Dwaita lake, abounding with flowers, and delightful to look at, and inhabited by many species of birds, elephants and many trees (3,24). It was on the south-western outskirts of Kurujangala and thus the whole of the Kuru Kingdom. It was situated near the borders of the desert (northern extension of the Thar desert into Haryana) (3,176). It also lay on the banks of the Saraswati River (known there as the Bhogavati) (3-24,176). The holy fig, the Rudraksha, the Rohitaka, the cane and the jujube, the catechu, the Shirisha, the Bel, the Inguda, the Karira, the Pilu and Sami trees grew on the banks of the Saraswati (3,176).
Dvārakā, also known as Dvāravatī, sometimes transcribed as Dwaraka and Dwaravati meaning "the many-gated [city]" in Sanskrit, is a city in Hindu tradition. The name Dvārakā is said to have been given to the place by the Hindu god Krishna. Dvārakā is one of the seven sacred cities (saptapuri) of Hinduism. In the Mahabharata it was an existing city in present day Dwarka, formerly called Kushasthali, the fort of which had to be repaired by the Yadavas. In this epic the city is described as a capital of the Anarta Kingdom. According to the Harivamsa the city was located in the region of Sindhu. According to this Purana, it was built on proposal of Garuda on request of Krishna by Vishwakarma, to secure the Yadava people. They left the city of Mathura for Dvārakā because of an attack of the two kings Kalayavana and Jarasandha before the Kurukshetra War, the great war of the Mahabharata.
A forest where the Kaurava, cows were being bred and housed.
King of Shālwas and father of Satyavān.
The natural, intrinsic state of every sentient being. Dzogchen (Wylie: dzogs chen) or "Great Perfection", also called Atiyoga, is a tradition of teachings in Tibetan Buddhism, aimed at attaining and maintaining the natural, primordial state or natural condition. It is a central teaching of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism and of Bon. In these traditions, Dzogchen is the highest and most definitive path of the nine vehicles to liberation.
Example via www.ramdass.org: Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche
Example via www.mindpodnetwork.com: Lama Surya Das – Dzogchen Non-Meditation