Eastern Spirituality

Glossary Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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One of Ravana's counsellors.

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Siva's cosmic dance. Tāṇḍava or Tāṇḍava nṛtya is a divine dance performed by the Hindu god Shiva. Shiva's Tandava is described as a vigorous dance that is the source of the cycle of creation, preservation and dissolution. While the Rudra Tandava depicts his violent nature, first as the creator and later as the destroyer of the universe, even of death itself; the Ananda Tandava depicts him as enjoying. In Shaiva Siddhanta tradition, Shiva as Nataraja (lit. "Lord of dance") is considered the supreme lord of dance.

The Tandava takes its name from Tandu (taṇḍu), the attendant of Shiva, who instructed Bharata (author of the Natya Shastra) in the use of Angaharas and Karanas, modes of the Tandava at Shiva's order. Some scholars consider that Tandu himself must have been the author of an earlier work on the dramatic arts, which was incorporated into the Natya Shastra. Indeed, the classical arts of dance, music and song may derive from the mudras and rituals of Shaiva tradition.

The 32 Angaharas and 108 Karanas are discussed by Bharata in the 4th chapter of the Natya Shastra, Tandava Lakshanam. Karana is the combination of hand gestures with feet to form a dance posture. Angahara is composed of seven or more Karanas. 108 karanas included in Tandava could be employed in the course of dance, fight, and personal combats and in other special movements like strolling.

The dance is a pictorial allegory of the five principal manifestations of eternal energy:

'Srishti' - creation, evolution
'Sthiti' - preservation, support
'Samhara' - destruction, evolution
'Tirobhava' - illusion
'Anugraha' - release, emancipation, grace

Thus Tandava symbolizes the cosmic cycles of creation and destruction, as well as the daily rhythm of birth and death.

Tandava, as performed in the sacred dance-drama of southern India, has vigorous, brisk movements. Performed with joy, the dance is called Ananda Tandava. Performed in a violent mood, the dance is called Rudra Tandava. In the Hindu texts, at least seven types of Tandava are found: Ananda Tandava, Tripura Tandava, Sandhya Tandava, Samhara Tandava, Kali (Kalika) Tandava, Uma Tandava and Gauri Tandava. However, some people believe that there are 16 types of Tandava.

"How many various dances of Shiva are known to His worshipers I cannot say. No doubt the root idea behind all of these dances is more or less one and the same, the manifestation of primal rhythmic energy. Whatever the origins of Shiva's dance, it became in time the clearest image of the activity of God which any art or religion can boast of." - Ananda Coomaraswamy

The dance performed by Shiva's wife Parvati in response to Shiva's Tandava is known as Lasya, in which the movements are gentle, graceful and sometimes erotic. Some scholars consider Lasya to be the feminine version of Tandava. Lasya has 2 kinds, Jarita Lasya and Yauvaka Lasya.

The Hindu scriptures narrate various occasions when Shiva or other gods have performed the Tandava. When Sati (first wife of Shiva, who was reborn as Parvati) jumped into the Agni Kunda (sacrificial fire) in Daksha's Yajna and gave up her life, Shiva is said to have performed the Rudra Tandava to express his grief and anger. The Shivapradosha stotra says when Shiva performs the Sandhya Tandava, the other gods like Brahma, Vishnu, Sarasvati, Lakshmi and Indra play musical instruments and sing Shiva's praises. Ganesha, the son of Shiva, is depicted as Ashtabhuja tandavsa nritya murtis (Eight armed form of Ganesha dancing the Tandava) in temple sculptures. The Bhagavata Purana talks of Krishna dancing his Tandava on the head of the serpent Kaliya. According to Jain traditions, Indra is said to have performed the Tandava in honour of Rishabha (Jain tirthankar) on the latter's birth.

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A period of waiting for admission into a Zen monastery at the gate, lasting anywhere from one day to several weeks—depending on the quality of one's sitting. Refers to the room traveling monks stay in when visiting, or await admittance into the sōdō.

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Craving or desire. Taṇhā (Pāli; Sanskrit: tṛṣṇā, also trishna) is a Buddhist term that literally means "thirst," and is commonly translated as craving or desire. Within Buddhism, taṇhā is defined as the craving to hold on to pleasurable experiences, to be separated from painful or unpleasant experiences, and for neutral experiences or feelings not to decline. The Buddhist tradition identifies taṇhā as a self-centered type of desire that is based in ignorance. This type of desire is contrasted to wholesome types of desire such as the desire to benefit others or to follow the Buddhist path. In the first teaching of the Buddha on the Four Noble Truths, the Buddha identified taṇhā as a principal cause in the arising of dukkha (suffering, anxiety, dissatisfaction). Taṇhā is also identified as the eighth link in the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination.

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In Zen, one of the main temple leaders, lit."head of the tan." In a Zen temple, the Tanto is one of two officers (with the Godo) in charge monks' training.

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Esoteric religious practices, including yoga, mantra, etc. Tantra is the name given by recent scholars to a style of meditation and ritual which arose in India no later than the 5th century AD.

Example video:

Example via www.ramdass.org: The Divine Pleasure of Food

Example via www.mindpodnetwork.com: Chogyam Trungpa on the Tantric Journey


The Tantric tradition offers various definitions of tantra. One comes from the Kāmikā-tantra:

Because it elaborates (tan) copious and profound matters, especially relating to the principles of reality (tattva) and sacred mantras, and because it provides liberation (tra), it is called a tantra.

A second, very similar to the first, comes from Swami Satyananda.

Tantra embodies two sanskrit words: tanoti (expands) and trayoti (liberates)... It is the system by which you liberate or separate the two aspects of consciousness and matter - purusha and prakriti or Shiva and Shakti.

A third comes from the 10th-century Tantric scholar Rāmakaṇṭha, who belonged to the dualist school Śaiva Siddhānta:

A tantra is a divinely revealed body of teachings, explaining what is necessary and what is a hindrance in the practice of the worship of God; and also describing the specialized initiation and purification ceremonies that are the necessary prerequisites of Tantric practice.

Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar describes a tantric individual and a tantric cult:

A person who, irrespective of caste, creed or religion, aspires for spiritual expansion or does something concrete, is a Tantric. Tantra in itself is neither a religion nor an "ism". Tantra is a fundamental spiritual science. So wherever there is any spiritual practice it should be taken for granted that it stands on the Tantric cult."


Modern scholars have defined Tantra; David Gordon White of the University of California, Santa Barbara offers the following:

Tantra is that Asian body of beliefs and practices which, working from the principle that the universe we experience is nothing other than the concrete manifestation of the divine energy of the godhead that creates and maintains that universe, seeks to ritually appropriate and channel that energy, within the human microcosm, in creative and emancipatory ways.

Anthony Tribe, a scholar of Buddhist Tantra, offers a list of features:

  1. Centrality of ritual, especially the worship of deities
  2. Centrality of mantras
  3. Visualisation of and identification with a deity
  4. Need for initiation, esotericism and secrecy
  5. Importance of a teacher (guru, ācārya)
  6. Ritual use of mandalas (maṇḍala)
  7. Transgressive or antinomian acts
  8. Revaluation of the body
  9. Revaluation of the status and role of women
  10. Analogical thinking (including microcosmic or macrocosmic correlation)
  11. Revaluation of negative mental states
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Assumed name of Sahadeva at Virata's court.

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Tao or Dao (/taʊ/, /daʊ/) is a Chinese concept signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', or sometimes more loosely, 'doctrine' or 'principle'. Within the context of traditional Chinese philosophy and religion, The Tao is the intuitive knowing of "life" that of which cannot be grasped full-heartedly as just a concept but known nonetheless through actual living experience of one's everyday being.

The Tao signifies the primordial essence or fundamental nature of the universe. The teachings began from Laozi that gave rise to a religion (Wade–Giles, Tao Chiao; Pinyin, Daojiao) and philosophy (Wade–Giles, Tao chia; Pinyin, Daojia) referred to in English with the single term Taoism. In the foundational text of Taoism, the Tao Te Ching, Laozi explains that Tao is not a 'name' for a 'thing' but the underlying natural order of the universe whose ultimate essence is difficult to circumscribe due to it being non conceptual yet evident in one's being of aliveness. The Tao is "eternally nameless” (Dao De Jing-32. Laozi) and to be distinguished from the countless 'named' things which are considered to be its manifestations, the reality of life before its descriptions of it.

The concept of Tao differs from conventional (western) ontology: it is an active and holistic conception of Nature, rather than a static, atomistic one. It is worth comparing to the original Logos of Heraclitus, c. 500 BC.

Example via www.ramdass.org: “Tao Te Ching” by Lao Tzu

Example via www.mindpodnetwork.com: The Way of Life

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Tapas means deep meditation, reasoned self discipline and effort to achieve self-realization, sometimes involving solitude, hermitism or asceticism; it is derived from the word root tap which depending on context means "heat" from fire or weather, or blaze, burn, shine, penance, pain, suffering, mortification.

In the Vedic literature of Hinduism, fusion words based on tapas are widely used to expound several spiritual concepts that develop through heat or inner energy, such as meditation, any process to reach special observations and insights, the spiritual ecstasy of a yogin or tāpasa (a Vriddhi derivative meaning "a practitioner of austerities, an ascetic"), even warmth of sexual intimacy. In certain contexts, the term is also used to mean penance, suffering, austerity, pious activity, as well as misery. The fusion word tapasvini, for example, means a female devotee or pious woman, "an ascetic, someone practicing austerities", or in some contexts it can mean poor, miserable woman.

In the yogic tradition, Tapas is the fire within and internal focus towards the goal of enlightenment, to foster self-control, one mindedness, simplicity, wisdom, integrity.

Example via www.ramdass.org: About Truth

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In Hinduism, the goddess Tara (Sanskrit: Tārā) meaning "star", is the second of the Dasa (ten) Mahavidyas or "Great Wisdom [goddesses]", is a form of Durga. Tantric manifestations of Durga or Mahadevi, Kali, or Parvati. As the star is seen as a beautiful but perpetually self-combusting thing, so Tara is perceived at core as the absolute, unquenchable hunger that propels all life.

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Tāragam is the name of forest, where dwelt ten thousand heretical rishis, who taught that the universe is eternal, that souls have no lord and that performance of works alone suffices for the attainment of salvation. Shiva taught them lesson and they became his followers. This legend is associated with Shiva's dance.

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Tārakā (or Tārā) was the second wife of Hindu God Brihaspati, God of planet Jupiter. According to the Puranas, Tara sired or mothered child named Budha (God of Mercury) through Chandra (Soma).

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Tarpaṇa is a term in the Vedic practice which refers to an offering made to divine entities. It refers to the act of the offering as well as the substance used in the offering itself. Tilatarpana is a different but associated term that is sometimes confused with Tarpana. Tilatarpana is a specific form of Tarpana involving libations offered to the Pitrs (deceased ancestors) using water and sesame seeds during Pitru Paksha or as a death rite.

(i) Tarpana means Arghya, an offering. It is offered to all devas as well as the Navagrahas whenever mulamantra is recited as japa. (ii) Instances of welcome Tarpana are:

(a) for Lakshmi, “आर्द्रां ज्वलंतीम् तृप्ताम् तर्पयन्तीम् “ Ārdrāṁ jvalantīm tr̥ptām tarpayantīm (Śrī Sūkta 4), "One who is satisfied and who satisfies those who offer Her Tarpana"
(b) for Tripura Sundari, bindu tarpaṇa santuṣṭām pūrvajā tripurāmbikā (Lalita Sahasranama 178, 974), "One who is satisfied by just a single drop of Tarpana"

(iii) Cow's milk (raw, unheated, and unpasteurized), water, sugar, saffron, cardamom, borneo-camphor, etc. are mixed and used as the offering according to the requirements.

(iv) One Tarpana (or Arghya) is offered for the recitation of every ten moolamantras and one for part thereof.

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One of the Buddha's ten epithets. Tathāgata is a Pali and Sanskrit word; Gautama Buddha uses it when referring to himself in the Pāli Canon. The term is often thought to mean either "one who has thus gone" (tathā-gata) or "one who has thus come" (tathā-āgata). This is interpreted as signifying that the Tathāgata is beyond all coming and going – beyond all transitory phenomena. There are, however, other interpretations and the precise original meaning of the word is not certain.

The Buddha is quoted on numerous occasions in the Pali Canon as referring to himself as the Tathāgata instead of using the pronouns me, I or myself. This may be meant to emphasize by implication that the teaching is uttered by one who has transcended the human condition, one beyond the otherwise endless cycle of rebirth and death, i.e. beyond dukkha.

The term also occurs as a synonym for arhat, identifying one who has attained the ultimate in the holy life. There is even a sense in which such a one is no longer human. "a tathāgata, a superior state of being (uttama-puriso)".

In the new religious movement of Falun Gong; the Tathāgata of a realm is the highest level enlightened being that can still manifest on earth to interact with human beings in order to save them. Founder Li Hongzhi claimed that both Jesus and Laozi were Tathāgatas.

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Buddha-nature or the seed of enlightenment. Buddha-nature or Buddha Principle refers to several related terms, most notably Tathāgatagarbha and Buddhadhātu. Tathāgatagarbha means "the womb" or "embryo" (garbha) of the "thus-gone" (tathagata), or "containing a tathagata", while Buddhadhātu literally means "Buddha-realm" or "Buddha-substrate".

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A presentation by a Zen master during a sesshin. Rather than an explanation or exposition in the traditional sense, it is intended as a demonstration of Zen realisation.

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Tendai is a Japanese school of Mahayana Buddhism, a descendant of the Chinese Tiantai or Lotus Sutra school.

David W. Chappell frames the relevance of Tendai for a universal Buddhism:

Although Tendai (Chin., T'ien-t'ai) has the reputation of being a major denomination in Japanese history, and the most comprehensive and diversified school of Chinese Buddhism, it is almost unknown in the West. This meagre presence is in marked contrast to the vision of the founder of the movement in China, T'ien-t'ai Chih-i (538-597), who provided a religious framework which seemed suited to adapt to other cultures, to evolve new practices, and to universalize Buddhism.

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In Zen, the head cook for a sesshin. In Zen temples, the officer in charge of the kitchen.

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"Elder", Honorific applied to senior monks and nuns in the Theravada tradition.

Example via www.mindpodnetwork.com: The Forest Monastery of Ajahn Chah

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"Words of the elders". Most popular form of Buddhism in Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka. Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the teaching of the Pāli Canon, a collection of the oldest recorded Buddhist texts, as its doctrinal core, but also includes a rich diversity of traditions and practices that have developed over its long history of interactions with various cultures and communities. It is the dominant form of religion in Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Burma, and is practiced by minority groups in Vietnam, Bangladesh, and China. In addition, the diaspora of all of these groups as well as converts around the world practice Theravāda Buddhism.

Example via www.ramdass.org: A Theravada Meditation

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Three things that Buddhists take refuge in: the Buddha, his teachings (Dharma) and the community of realized practitioners (Sangha), and in return look toward for guidance.

The Three Jewels, also called the Three Treasures, Three Refuges, Precious Triad, or most commonly the Triple Gem, are the three things that Buddhists take refuge in, and look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge.

The Three Jewels are:

  • Buddha - Depending on one's interpretation, it can mean the historical Buddha (Siddharta) or the Buddha nature — the ideal or highest spiritual potential that exists within all beings.
  • Dharma - The teachings of the Buddha, the path to Enlightenment.
  • Sangha - The community of those who have attained enlightenment, who may help a practicing Buddhist to do the same. Also used more broadly to refer to the community of practicing Buddhists, or the community of Buddhist monks and nuns.

Example via www.ramdass.org: Kalu Rinpoche

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The Three Ages of Buddhism, also known as the Three Ages of the Dharma, are three divisions of time following Buddha's passing. The Latter Day of the Law is the third and last of the Three Ages of Buddhism. Mappō or Mofa, which is also translated as the Age of Dharma Decline, is the "degenerate" Third Age of Buddhism.

  • Three divisions of the time following the historical Buddha's passing: the Former (or Early) Day of the Law (正法 Cn: zhèngfǎ; Jp: shōbō), the first thousand years; the Middle Day of the Law (像法 Cn: xiàngfǎ; Jp: zōhō), the second thousand years; and the Latter Day of the Law (末法 Cn: mòfǎ; Jp: mappō), which is to last for 10,000 years.
  • The three periods are significant to Mahayana adherents, particularly those who hold the Lotus Sutra in high regard; e.g., Tiantai (Tendai) and Nichiren Buddhists, who believe that different Buddhist teachings are valid (i.e., able to lead practitioners to enlightenment) in each period due to the different capacity to accept a teaching (機根 Cn: jīgēn; Jp: kikon) of the people born in each respective period.
  • The three periods are further divided into five five-hundred year periods (五五百歳 Cn: wǔ wǔbǎi suì; Jp: go no gohyaku sai), the fifth and last of which was prophesied to be when the Buddhism of Sakyamuni would lose all power of salvation and a new Buddha would appear to save the people. This time period would be characterized by unrest, strife, famine, and other, natural disasters.
  • The three periods and the five five-hundred year periods are described in the Sutra of the Great Assembly (大集経 Cn: dàjí jīng; Jp: Daishutu-kyō, Daijuku-kyō, Daijikkyō, or Daishukkyō). Descriptions of the three periods also appear in other sutras, some of which ascribe different lengths of time to them (although all agree that Mappō will last for 10,000 years).
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The three poisons (Sanskrit: triviṣa; Tibetan: dug gsum) or the three unwholesome roots (Sanskrit: akuśala-mūla; Pāli: akusala-mūla), in Buddhism, refer to the three root kleshas of ignorance, attachment, and aversion. These three poisons are considered to be the cause of suffering (Sanskrit: dukkha). The three primary causes of unskillful action that lead to the creation of "negative" karma; the three root kleshas:

  1. Attachment
  2. Aversion
  3. Ignorance
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Tiantai is an important school of Buddhism in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, revering the Lotus Sutra as the highest teaching in Buddhism. In Japan the school is known as Tendai, in Korea as Cheontae and in Vietnam as Thiên thai tông.

The name is derived from the fact that Zhiyi, the fourth patriarch, lived on Tiantai Mountain. Zhiyi is also regarded as the first major figure to make a significant break from the Indian tradition, to form an indigenous Chinese system. Tiantai is sometimes also called "The Lotus School", after the central role of the Lotus Sutra in its teachings.

During the Tang dynasty, the Tiantai school became one of the leading schools of Chinese Buddhism, with numerous large temples supported by emperors and wealthy patrons, with many thousands of monks and millions of followers.

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Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, Mongolia, Tuva, Bhutan, Kalmykia and certain regions of the Himalayas, including northern Nepal, and India (particularly in Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh, Dharamsala, Lahaul and Spiti district in Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim). It is the state religion of Bhutan. It is also practiced in Mongolia and parts of Russia (Kalmykia, Buryatia, and Tuva) and Northeast China. Religious texts and commentaries are contained in the Tibetan Buddhist canon such that Tibetan is a spiritual language of these areas. Tibetan Buddhism preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth century India.

The Tibetan diaspora has spread Tibetan Buddhism to many Western countries, where the tradition has gained popularity. Among its prominent exponents is the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. The number of its adherents is estimated to be between ten and twenty million.

Example via www.ramdass.org: Lama Tsongkhapa

Example via www.mindpodnetwork.com: About Lama Surya Das – Awakening Now

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In Hinduism, the tilaka (tikli or sheether harr in Bengali, tika, or tilakam or tilak in Hindi; Sanskrit: tilaka; Hindustani pronunciation: [t̪ɪˈlək]) is a mark worn on the forehead and other parts of the body. Tilaka may be worn on a daily basis or for special religious occasions only, depending on different customs.

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Tilottama (Sanskrit: Tilottamā) is an Apsara (celestial nymph) described in Hindu mythology. "Tila" is the Sanskrit word for sesame seed or a bit and "uttama" means better or higher. Tilottama therefore means the being whose smallest particle is the finest or one who is composed of the finest and highest qualities.

In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Tilottama is described to have been created by the divine architect Vishwakarma, at Brahma's request, by taking the best quality of everything as the ingredients. She was responsible for bringing about the mutual destruction of the Asuras (demons), Sunda and Upasunda. Even gods like Shiva and Indra are described to be enamoured of Tilottama.

While a legend talks about a pre-birth as an ugly widow, another narrates how she was cursed to be born as a Daitya (demon) princess Usha by sage Durvasa.

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Trailokya has been translated as "three worlds," "three spheres," "three planes of existence," "three realms" and "three regions." These three worlds are identified in Hinduism and already appear in early Buddhist texts. The 3 "regions" of the world:

  • Kamaloka or Kamadhatu: world of desires
  • Rupaloka or Rupadhatu: world of form
  • Arupaloka or Arupadhatu: world without form or desire
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Trāṭaka (Sanskrit n.trāṭaka, tratak, trataka: "to look, or to gaze") is the practice of staring at some external object. This fixed gazing is a method of meditation which involves concentrating on a single point such as a small object, black dot or candle flame. It is used in yoga as a way of developing concentration, strengthening the eyes, and stimulating the ājňā chakra.

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The Trikāya doctrine (Sanskrit, literally "Three bodies") is a Mahayana Buddhist teaching on both the nature of reality and the nature of Buddhahood. The 3 "bodies" of Buddha:

  • Dharma-kaya
  • Sambhoga-kaya
  • Nirmana-kaya
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The "Three Baskets"; canon containing the sacred texts for Buddhism. Tripiṭaka is a Sanskrit word meaning Three Baskets. It is the traditional term used by Buddhist traditions to describe their various canons of scriptures. The expression Three Baskets originally referred to three receptacles containing the palm-leaf manuscripts on which the Buddhist scriptures were originally preserved. Hence, the Tripiṭaka traditionally contains three "baskets" of teachings:

  • Vinaya Pitaka
  • Sutra Pitaka
  • Abhidhamma Pitaka
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Tripura (Tamil: Tiripuram, Thai: Triburam) meaning three cities, was constructed by the great Asura architect Mayasura. They were great cities of prosperity, power and dominance over the world, but due to their impious nature, Maya's cities were destroyed by god Tripurantaka, an aspect of Shiva. The three cities were made of iron, silver and gold and were located on earth, in the sky and in heaven, respectively.

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Trishira or Trisiras, that is, one having three heads, was an asura (a demon), and reference to him is found in the Ramayana. He was one of the seven sons of Ravana, and his other brothers were Indrajit, Prahasta, Atikaya, Akshayakumara, Devantaka and Narantaka.

The Ramayana tells that he engaged Rama in a fight and hit him with a number of arrows. At this Rama told him that the arrows were nothing but like flowers being showered on his body. Thereafter, a duel ensued, in which Rama killed Trishira.

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In Hindu tradition Triveni Sangam is the "confluence" of three rivers. Sangama is the Sanskrit word for confluence. The point of confluence is a sacred place for Hindus. A bath here is said to flush away all of one's sins and free one from the cycle of rebirth.

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A re-incarnated Tibetan teacher. A tulku (also tülku, trulku) is a custodian of a specific lineage of teachings in Tibetan Buddhism who is given empowerments and trained from a young age by students of his predecessor.

High-profile examples of tulkus include the Khyentses, the Kongtruls, the Dalai Lamas and the Karmapas.

Example via www.ramdass.org: Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche

Example via www.mindpodnetwork.com: Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche On Doubt

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Sacred basil plant.

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Tulsidas (Hindi pronunciation: [t̪ʊls̪iːd̪aːs̪], also known as Goswami Tulsidas; (1497/1532–1623) was a Hindu poet-saint, reformer and philosopher from Ramanandi Sampradaya in the lineage of Jagadguru Ramanandacharya renowned for his devotion to the Lord Shri Rama . A composer of several popular works, he is best known as the author of the epic Ramcharitmanas, a retelling of the Sanskrit Ramayana based on Rama's life in the vernacular Awadhi.

Tulsidas was acclaimed in his lifetime to be a reincarnation of Valmiki, the composer of the original Ramayana in Sanskrit. He is also considered to be the composer of the Hanuman Chalisa, a popular devotional hymn dedicated to Hanuman, the divine devotee of Rama.

Tulsidas spent most of his life in the city of Varanasi. The Tulsi Ghat on the Ganges River in Varanasi is named after him. He founded the Sankatmochan Temple dedicated to Hanuman in Varanasi, believed to stand at the place where he had the sight of Hanuman. Tulsidas started the Ramlila plays, a folk-theatre adaption of the Ramayana.

He has been acclaimed as one of the greatest poets in Hindi, Indian, and world literature. The impact of Tulsidas and his works on the art, culture and society in India is widespread and is seen to date in vernacular language, Ramlila plays, Hindustani classical music, popular music, and television series.

Example via www.ramdass.org: Tulsidas

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Tyāga,- means risking one’s life or giving up one’s person. Tyāga means – sacrifice, renunciation, abandonment, resignation, donation, forsaking, liberality, withdrawal Tyāga which is not merely physical renunciation of the world is different from Sannyasa; Sannyasa which comes from the root as means – "giving up entirely", Tyāga means – "giving up with generosity what one could probably have kept".

Glossary Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z