Pabbajja (Pali; Skt.: pravrajya) literally means "to go forth" and refers to when a layperson leaves home to live the life of a Buddhist renunciate among a community of monks (bhikkhus). This generally involves preliminary ordination as a novice (m. samanera, f. samaneri). It is sometimes referred to as "lower ordination." After a period or when the novice reaches 20 years of age, the novice can be considered for the upasampada ordination (or "higher ordination") whereby the novice becomes a monk (bhikkhu) or nun (bhikkhuni).
In some traditional Theravada countries, such as Myanmar, boys undergo pabbajja (Shinbyu) at the age of puberty. In Mahayana countries such as China and Japan, the pabbajja is preceded by a probationary period.
The full lotus asana in which the legs are crossed and the feet rest on the thighs.
The Lotus Position (Sanskrit: [pɐd̪mɑːs̪ɐn̪ɐ], IAST: padmāsana) is a cross-legged sitting asana originating in meditative practices of ancient India, in which the feet are placed on the opposing thighs. It is an established asana, commonly used for meditation, in the Hindu Yoga, Jain and Buddhist contemplative traditions. The asana is said to resemble a lotus, to encourage breathing proper to associated meditative practice, and to foster physical stability.
Shiva, the meditating ascetic God of Hinduism, Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, and the Tirthankaras of Jainism have been depicted in the lotus position.
A tree Butea frondosa also called "flame of the forest".
In Buddhist phenomenology and soteriology, the skandhas (Sanskrit) or khandhas (Pāḷi), aggregates in English, are the five functions or aspects that constitute the sentient being: matter, sensation, perception, mental formations and consciousness. The Buddha teaches that nothing among them is really "I" or "mine". The elements are:
In the Theravada tradition, suffering arises when one identifies with or clings to an aggregate. Suffering is extinguished by relinquishing attachments to aggregates.
The Mahayana tradition further puts forth that ultimate freedom is realized by deeply penetrating the nature of all aggregates as intrinsically empty of independent existence.
Panchajanya is the Shankha conch of the Hindu god Vishnu. Krishna, the avatar of Vishnu, is described possessing a shankha called Panchajanya, one of his four attributes together with the mace Kaumodaki, the disc-like weapon Sudarshana Chakra and a lotus flower. The conch was used during the Kurukshetra War. Panchajanya or Shankhasur was an evil sea demon who lived in a colossal conch shell in the deepest depths of the Prabhasa ocean or was a demon in the form of a conch shell. He kidnapped the son of Sandipani, the guru of Shri Krishna, Balarama and Sudama, and imprisoned him in the conch shell. Upon completion of their studies, Krishna, Balarama, and Sudama persuaded the teacher to ask for the preceptor’s dakshina (fees) of his liking. Sandipani asked for, as his dakshina, the restoration of his child. Krishna became enraged when he heard about the kidnap and plunged into the sea to rescue the son of Sandipani. Krishna successfully slew Shankhasur and took the conch shell for himself. He then named the conch shell after the Demon. Whenever Krishna blows from the shell it foreshadows the death of his next opponent.
Pānchāla corresponds to the geographical area between the Ganges River and Yamuna River around the city of Kanpur and Benares. Anciently, it was home to an Indian kingdom, the Panchalas, one of the Mahajanapadas.
Panchala (Sanskrit: Pañcāla) was the name of an ancient kingdom of northern India, located in the Ganges-Yamuna Doab of the upper Gangetic plain, encompassing the modern-day states of Uttarakhand and western Uttar Pradesh. During Late Vedic times (c.850-500 BCE), it was one of the most powerful states of South Asia, closely allied with the Kuru Kingdom. By the c. 5th century BCE, it had become an oligarchic confederacy, considered as one of the solasa (sixteen) mahajanapadas (major states) of South Asia. After being absorbed into the Mauryan Empire (322-185 BCE), Panchala regained its independence until it was annexed by the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE.
Another name of Draupadi, Queen of the Pandavas and daughter of King Drupada. Draupadi (Sanskrit: draupadī, Sanskrit pronunciation: [d̪rəʊpəd̪i]) is described as the Tritagonist in the Hindu epic, Mahabharata. According to the epic, she is the "fire born" daughter of Drupada, King of Panchala and also became the common wife of the five Pandavas. She was the most beautiful woman of her time.
Draupadi had five sons; one by each of the Pandavas: Prativindhya from Yudhishthira, Sutasoma from Bheema, Srutakarma from Arjuna, Satanika from Nakula, and Srutasena from Sahadeva.
Draupadi is considered as one of the Panch-Kanyas or Five Virgins.
A son of King Drupada who died in the war.
The Panchen Lama, or Panchen Erdeni, is the highest ranking lama after the Dalai Lama in the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism, the lineage which controlled western Tibet from the 16th century until the Battle of Chamdo and the subsequent 1959 Tibetan uprising.
The present (11th) incarnation of the Panchen Lama is Gedhun Choekyi Nyima as decreed by His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama on May 14, 1995. The Communist Party of China announced a separate candidate, Gyaincain Norbu, and Gedhun Choekyi Nyima vanished from the public eye shortly after being named at aged six. Chinese authorities stated that Gedhun had been taken into protective custody from those that would spirit him into exile and is now held in captivity against the wishes of the Tibetan people. Tibetans and human rights groups continue to campaign for his release.
The place beside the river Godavari where Rama, Sita and Laxmana stayed in exile.
In the Mahabharata, a Hindu epic text, the Pandava (also Pandawa) are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. Their names are Yudhisthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva. All five brothers were married to the same woman, Draupadi. (Each brother also had multiple other wives.)
Together, the brothers fought and prevailed in a great war against their cousins the Kauravas, which came to be known as the Battle of Kurukshetra.
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A pandit or pundit (both pronounced /ˈpʌndɪt/; Sanskrit: paṇḍita) is a scholar and a teacher, particularly one skilled in the Sanskrit language, who has mastered the four Vedic scriptures, Hindu rituals, Hindu law, religion, music, and/or philosophy under a Guru in a Gurukul or has been tutored under the ancient Vedic Guru-Shishya academic tradition. The English loan word pundit is derived from it but has been used to broadly refer to any of the following: Siddhas, Siddhars, Naths, Ascetics, Sadhus, or Yogis.
In the usage of the word, "Pandit", synonymous to "Purohits", refers to and they claim to be Hindu, almost a Brahmin, who has memorized a substantial portion of the Vedas, along with the corresponding rhythms and melodies for chanting religious verses or singing them during prayers or rituals.
Second son of Vichitravirya and Ambalika who succeeded to the throne of Hastinapura on his father's death, as his elder brother Dhritarashtra was born blind, father of the Pandavas.
In the Mahabharata epic, Pandu (Sanskrit: पाण्डु Pāṇḍu), sometimes also called as Pandu is the son of Ambalika and Rishi Veda Vyasa. He is more popularly known as the earthly father of the Pandavas and ruled Hastinapur.
Paññā (Pāli) or prajñā (Sanskrit) "wisdom", is insight in the true nature of reality, namely dukkha, anatta, impermanence and śūnyatā.
Paramārtha (499-569 CE) was an Indian monk from Ujjain in central India, who is best known for his prolific Chinese translations which include Vasubandhu's Abhidharmakośa. Paramārtha is considered one of the greatest translators of sutras in Chinese Buddhism, along with Kumārajīva and Xuanzang.
Paramahamsa, also spelled paramahansa or paramhansa, is a Sanskrit religio-theological title of honor applied to Hindu spiritual teachers who are regarded as having attained enlightenment. The title literally means "supreme swan," and symbolizes spiritual discrimination. The swan is equally at home on land and on water; similarly, the true sage is equally at home in the realms of matter and of spirit. To be in divine ecstasy and simultaneously to be actively wakeful is the paramahansa state; the 'royal swan' of the soul floats in the cosmic ocean, beholding both its body and the ocean as manifestations of the same Spirit. The word 'Paramahamsa' signifies one who is Awakened in all realms. Paramahansa is the highest level of spiritual development in which a union with ultimate reality has been attained by a sannyasi.
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"Reaching the other shore," usually rendered in English as "perfection." The Mahayana practices for obtaining enlightenment; giving, ethics, patience, effort, concentration and wisdom.
Pāramitā is "perfection" or "completeness." In Buddhism, the pāramitās refer to the perfection or culmination of certain virtues. In Buddhism, these virtues are cultivated as a way of purification, purifying karma and helping the aspirant to live an unobstructed life, while reaching the goal of enlightenment.
A great sage, father of Veda Vyasa. Parashara (IAST: Parāśara) was a Rigvedic Maharishi (seer), and the author of many ancient Indian texts. He is accredited for being the author of the first Purana: Vishnu Purana (before his Son Veda Vyasa wrote it in its present form). He was the grandson of Vashista, the son of Śakti Maharṣi, and the father of Veda Vyasa. There are several texts which give reference to Parashara as an author/speaker. Modern scholars believe that there were many individuals who used this name throughout time whereas others assert that the same Parashara taught these various texts and the time of writing them varied. The actual sage himself never wrote the texts, he was known as a traveling teacher, and the various texts attributed to him are given in reference to Parashara being the speaker to his student. He is the third member of the Ṛṣi Paramparā of the Advaita Guru Paramparā.
One of the famous temple is located in PARSON near Badhkal lake faridabad dist.-faridabad haryana near delhi. It is at very beautiful location in between the aravali mountains.
Parshurama(Parashuram) is the sixth avatar of Lord Vishnu. He is the son of Renuka and one of the saptarishi Sage Jamadagni. He lived during the last Treta, Dvapara Yuga's and is one of the seven immortals or Chiranjivi of Hinduism. He received an axe after undertaking terrible penance to please Lord Shiva, who in turn taught him the martial arts.
Parashurama is most known for ridding the world of kshatriyas twenty-one times over after the mighty king Kartavirya Arjuna killed his father. He played important roles in the Mahabharata and Ramayana, serving as mentor to Bhishma, Drona and Karna. Lord Parashurama and Ravana's son Indrajit are believed to be the only humans who ever possessed the three ultimate weapons of trinity i.e. Brahmanda astra, Vaishnava astra and Pashupatastra. Parashurama was a disciple of Lord Shiva and learned the scriptures and the arts of warfare from Lord Shiva. He then acquired celestial weapons from Lord Shiva and the other gods on Lord Shiva's instructions. Lord Shiva personally trained Parashurama for decades in the art of warfare. Bhargavastra was his personal celestial weapon and Vijaya was his personal bow which was gifted by Lord Shiva. Parashurama also fought back the advancing seas to save the lands of Konkan and Kerala.
Parashurama is worshipped as mool purush, or founder, of the Niyogi Bhumihar Brahmin, Chitpavan,Devrukhe, Daivadnya, Mohyal, Tyagi, Anavil and Nambudiri Brahmin communities.Along with sage Vyasa ,sage Kripa and Drona's son sage Ashwatthama, Parashurama is considered to be foremost among the rishis in Kaliyuga. Parashurama will also become one of the Saptarishi in the 8th Manvantara along with sage Vyasa, sage Kripa and Drona's son sage Ashwatthama. Parashurama is a mighty Maharathi and he will reappear as the martial instructor of Vishnu's 10th avatar Kalki.
Son of Raibhva and elder brother of Arvavasu whose wife was violated by Yavakrida, who was killed with a spear by a fiend for his sin.
Son of Abhimanyu and grandson of the Pandavas who was crowned king after the holocaust claimed the Kauravas and the Pandavas.
Parikshit(Sanskrit: Parikṣit) was a Kuru king who reigned during the Middle Vedic period (12th or 11th century BCE). Along with his successor Janamejaya, he played a decisive role in the consolidation of the Kuru state, the arrangement of Vedic hymns into collections, and the development of the orthodox srauta ritual, transforming the Kuru realm into the dominant political and cultural center of northern Iron Age India.
He also appears as a figure in later legends and traditions. According to the Mahabharata and the Puranas, he succeeded Yudhisthira to the throne of Hastinapur.
The final nibbana/nirvana. In Buddhism, the term parinirvana (Sanskrit: parinirvāṇa; Pali: parinibbāna) is commonly used to refer to nirvana-after-death, which occurs upon the death of the body of someone who has attained nirvana during their lifetime. It implies a release from the Saṃsāra, karma and rebirth as well as the dissolution of the skandhas.
In some Mahāyāna scriptures, notably the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, Parinirvāṇa is described as the realm of the eternal true Self of the Buddha.
The name of a brahman who brought news of Nala to Damayanti.
Another name of Arjuna.
Parvati (Devanagari: IAST: Pārvatī) is the Hindu goddess of love, fertility and devotion. She is the gentle and nurturing aspect of Hindu goddess Shakti. She is the mother goddess in Hinduism and has many attributes and aspects. Each of her aspects is expressed with a different name, giving her over 100 names in regional Hindu mythologies of India. Along with Lakshmi (goddess of wealth and prosperity) and Saraswati (goddess of knowledge and learning), she forms the trinity of Hindu goddesses.
Parvati is the wife of the Hindu deity Shiva - the destroyer, recycler and regenerator of universe and all life. She is the daughter of mountain king Parvat and mother Mena. Parvati is the mother of Hindu deities Ganesha and Kartikeya. Her elder sister is goddess Ganges. Some communities also believe her to be the adopted sister of Vishnu.
With Śiva, Pārvatī is a central deity in Saivism sect of Hinduism. In Hindu belief, she is the recreative energy and power of Śiva, and she is the cause of bond that connects all beings and a means of their spiritual release. In Hindu temples dedicated to her and Śiva, she is symbolically represented as argha or yoni. She is found extensively in ancient Indian literature, and her statues and iconography grace ancient and medieval era Hindu temples all over South Asia and Southeast Asia.
The Pashupatastra (IAST: Pāśupatāstra), in Hindu History, is an irresistible and most destructive personal weapon of Shiva, Kali and Adi Para Sakthi discharged by the mind, the eyes, words, or a bow. Never to be used against lesser enemies or by lesser warriors, the Pashupatastra is capable of destroying creation and vanquishing all beings. Pashupatastra is the weapon of Pashupatinath, the most important of all Shiva temples, located in Kathmandu, Nepal.Maha Kameswara Astra, the personal weapon of Adi Para Sakthi is the weapons that can neutralize the Pashupatastra.Lord Shiva obtained Pashupatastra from Adi Para Sakthi by intense penance before the creation of the Brahmand.
In the Mahabharata Arjuna obtained this weapon from Lord Shiva but did not use it because this weapon would destroy the entire world, if used against a mortal enemy. Arjuna used this astra to slay Jayadaratha.It is said that the mantra to obtain and discharge the astra is sealed by Shiva to prevent its misuse in the Kali Yuga. It is said that no one in the three worlds can resist lord Shiva when he shows his prowess. Apart from Arjuna,Sage Parashurama and Ravan's son Indrajit no other warrior possessed this weapon. It is also said that when indrajith used the pasupathastra against laxman it doesn't harm him because Laxhamn was the part incarnate of Lord Vishnu.
A Narrative from KMG translation of Mahabharat regarding the power of Pashupatastra:
O thou of mighty arms, that weapon(Pashupatastra) is superior to the Brahma, the Narayana, the Aindra, the Agneya, and the Varuna weapons. Verily, it is capable of neutralising every other weapon in the universe. It was with that weapon that the illustrious Mahadeva had in days of yore, burnt and consumed in a moment the triple city of the Asuras. With the greatest ease, O Govinda, Mahadeva, using that single arrow, achieved that feat. That weapon, shot by Mahadeva's arms, can, without doubt consume in half the time taken up by a twinkling of the eyes the entire universe with all its mobile and immobile creatures. In the universe there is no being including even the deities, that are incapable of being slain by that weapon.
Pauravas was an ancient country in northwest subcontinent dating from at least 890 BCE. Its first capital was Hastinapura.
In the 8th century BCE, Hastinapura was destroyed by a severe flood and King Nikasu built a new capital, Kausambi. With the rise of the Mahajanapada powers, the state fell into a steady decline during 5th and 4th centuries BCE.
The origin of the Pauravas tribe is quite ancient and pre-dates MAHABHARATAS. The kings who descended from CHANDRA ("moon") were called CHANDRAVANSHI (or "of the lunar dynasty"). Yayati was a CHANDRAVANSHI king, with Puru and Yadu as two of his many sons. They were the founders of two main branches of the Chandravamsha; the YADUS, or Yadavas, were descendants of Yadu, and Pauravas were descendants of Puru.
The Pauravas had also existed earlier in the Vedic Ages. They were led by King Sudas, who fought off Persian invaders at the Battle of the Ten Kings.
The Pauravas were situated on or near the Indus river, where their monarchs grew rich and prosperous through trade. The Persian kings Darius and Xerxes claimed suzerainty over many of the Pauravas, but this claim was loose at best. The most powerful tribes, led by Ambhi and Porus, were conquered by the Macedonian Emperor Alexander the Great in 326 BC. Porus fought a fierce last stand against Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes. Alexander was not able to conquer the entire area due to his army refusing to fight the Nanda Empire further east. By 322 BCE, the region had been conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, a teenage adventurer from Magadha, who later conquered the Nanda Empire and founded the Maurya Empire.
Wife of Ugrasena, mother of Kams.
Prajñāpāramitā means "the Perfection of (Transcendent) Wisdom" in Mahāyāna Buddhism. The word Prajñāpāramitā combines the Sanskrit words prajñā "wisdom" with pāramitā "perfection".
Prajñāpāramitā is a central concept in Mahāyāna Buddhism and its practice and understanding are taken to be indispensable elements of the Bodhisattva path.
One of the important features of the Prajñāpāramitā Sutras is anutpada (unborn, no origin). Some Prajñāpāramitā sūtras are thought to be among the earliest Mahāyāna sūtras.
Phalguna (Phālguna, Hindi: Phālgun, Tamil: Paṅkuṉi) or Falgun is the eleventh month in the Bengali calendar and Nepali calendar, but the twelfth (last) month in Hindu calendar. This month is named after the star Uttôrfalguni. It marks the arrival of spring, the sixth and final season in Bangladesh, Nepal and Assam. In India's national civil calendar, Phalguna is the twelfth month of the year, and corresponds with February/March in the Gregorian calendar. The first of Falgun usually falls on 13 February. The first day of Falgun is celebrated as Pohela Falgun in Bangladesh. In Nepal the first day of Falgun is marked with colourful celebration of the advent of spring called Holi, known locally as Fagu. Traditionally, women wear yellow saris to celebrate this day.
In Luni-Solar religious calendars, Phalgun may begin on either the new moon or the full moon around the same time of year, and is usually the eleventh or twelfth month of the year. However, in Gujarat, Kartika is the first month of the year, and so Phalguna follows as the fifth month for Gujaratis.The holidays of Holi (15 Phalguna) and Maha Shivaratri (14 Phalguna) are observed in this month.
In North India Falguna ends on the full moon day i.e. the 5th day of the month of March in the year 2015. The new year starts after this day there. Whereas the month of Falguna ends on the new moon day that comes after above mentioned full moon day, that is on 20 March in the year 2015. In North India 5 March 2015 is celebrated as Holi, which marks the end of the year. The new year starts from 6 March in the year 2015 in North India.. In the South Falgun ends on 20 March 2015 (new moon day) and the next day Is celebrated as the New Year's Day. Thus in all cases Falguna is the twelfth month only.
In solar religious calendars, Phalguna begins with the Sun's entry into Aquarius, and is usually the eleventh month of the year.
In the Vaishnava calendar, Govinda governs this month.
Hindu saint Raghavendra Swami was born on Phalgun Sukla Navami in 1595 AD who advocated Madhvacharya's Dvaita philosophy.
Subtle nerve channel on the right side; solar nadi.
Literally grandfather, which however carried no imputation of senile infirmity but denotes the status of the pater familias.
The direct introduction to the nature of mind in the lineages of Essence Mahamudra and Dzogchen. A root guru is the master who gives the 'pointing-out instruction' so that the disciple recognizes the nature of mind.
The Vasu who seized Vasishtha's divine cow.
Pradyumna is the name of a character in the Srimad Bhagavatam. He was the son of Lord Krishna and Rukmini. Pradyumna is considered as one of the four vyuha avatar of Vishnu. When he was a baby he was abducted by the demon Sambara. He was then cast into the sea and swallowed by a fish, but that fish was caught and carried to the house of Sambara. The fish was opened and the child was found inside. He was given to a woman in Sambara's house to raise. Narada informed her about the true identity of the child. When Pradyumna grew up, he battled the demon Sambara, defeated him. Pradyumna was later killed in a brawl in his father's court at Dwaraka. According to some accounts, Pradyumna was an incarnation of Kama, the god of love.
Pradyumna was son of Lord Krishna and 61st grandson of Adinarayan. His mother was Rukmini, whom Lord Krishna got from her father Bhimkashen Narayan. He was the version of God Kamdev. In the Treta Yuga, Kamdev was burnt by Shiva when he became a barrier to Shiva's meditation. Shiva blessed Kamdev's distraught wife, Rati and promised her that in his next birth Kamdev will be a part of Krishna and Rati will be the daughter of Bhimkaraya and that she will marry him.
Pradyumna is also a name of the Hindu god Vishnu. He is one in 24 Keshava Namas (names), praised in all pujas. It is also the only name in Sanskrit with all the 3 letters joint.
The Harivamsa describes intricate relationships between Krishna Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha that would later form a Vaishnava concept of primary quadrupled expansion, or avatar.
In the Hindu epic the Ramayana, Prahastha was a powerful rakshasa warrior, chief commander of Ravana's army of Lanka and son of Ravana. In his next birth Prahastha was reborn as Purochana in the Mahabharata as Duryodhana's trusted aide and who was responsible for the Lakshagraha incident. In both his births he has been the minister of the Villains of the time. This is also a clear instance of Swabhava traividya of souls.
Prahastha leads Ravana's army in the wars against Yama, Kubera and the Devas, and the Asuras and Daityas, through which Ravana establishes his sovereignty over the three worlds. He also leads the initial Lankan response to the invasion led by Rama, Lakshmana, Sugriva and the Vanara army.
Prahastha was the younger brother of Indrajit, who died at the hands of Lakshmana on the first day of the Battle between the forces of Rama and Ravana on the Soil of Lanka.
Prahastha Killed several important warriors of the Sugriva's army was actually proving to be real threat to the army of Rama, so Lakshmana had to move in to the rescue of the beleaguered army, who was suffering at the hands of the Prahastha (quoted directly from the Tulasidas Ramayana). Even Valmiki has gone in to describe that the ruthless warrior Prahastha was, and Lakshmana had to use all the celestial weapons to kill this warrior.
Prajāpatīs are a group (or one) of creation gods, children of Brahma, including Daksha.
In Hinduism, Prajapati (IAST: prajā-pati) "lord of people" is a group Hindu deity presiding over procreation, and protection of life, thereby a King of Kings. Vedic commentators also identify him with the creator referred to in the Nasadiya Sukta.
Supreme intuitive wisdom, "insight". Paññā (Pāli) or prajñā (Sanskrit) "wisdom", is insight in the true nature of reality, namely dukkha, anatta, impermanence and śūnyatā.
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A beautiful spot on the banks of the Ganges, to the north of Hastinapura, the Kuru capital (1,128). Duryodhana built a palace here for disporting himself in the waters of Ganges. A huge banyan tree was the mark of that place (3,12). Here he poisoned the food of Bhima, bound him and threw him into Ganges. Bhima was rescued by the Naga tribes living in the vicinity (1,128) (8,83) (9,56).
Prana (prāṇa) is the Sanskrit word for "life force" or vital principle. In yoga, Indian medicine, and martial arts, the term refers to a cosmic energy believed to come from the sun and connecting the elements of the universe. The universal principle of energy or force, responsible for the body's life, heat and maintenance, prana is the sum total of all energy that is manifest in the universe. This life energy, prana, has been vividly invoked and described in Vedas. In Ayurveda, tantra and Tibetan medicine "praṇā vāyu" is the basic vāyu (wind, air) from which all the other vāyus arise. It is analogous to qi.
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Prāṇāyāma (Sanskrit:prāṇāyāma) is a Sanskrit word meaning "extension of the prāṇa or breath" or "extension of the life force". The word is composed of two Sanskrit words: prana, life force, or vital energy, (noted particularly as the breath), and ayāma, to extend or draw out. (Not "restrain, or control" as is often translated from yam instead of ayāma). It is a yogic discipline with origins in ancient India.
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Food or other offerings, considered to be sanctified, after being presented to God.
Prasad (Hindustani pronunciation: [prəsaːd̪]; also called prasada or prasadam) is a material substance of food that is a religious offering in both Hinduism and Sikhism. It is normally consumed by worshippers.
'Prasad' literally means a gracious gift. It denotes anything, typically an edible food, that is first offered to a deity, saint, Perfect Master or an avatar, and then distributed in His or Her name to their followers or others as a good sign. The prasad is then considered to have the deity's blessing residing within it. In contemporary Hindu religious practice in India, the desire to get prasada and have darshana are the two major motivations of pilgrimage and temple visits.
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As a spiritual state prasāda has a rich history of meanings in the Sanskrit tradition from Vedic literature onwards. In this textual tradition, prasada is a mental state experienced by gods, sages, and other powerful beings and is marked by spontaneous generosity and the bestowing of boons. In the earliest literature (Rig Veda) onwards Prasāda is understood in this sense of a mental state, not as an aspect of ritual practice. In later texts such as the Shiva Purana, references to prasada as a material substance begins to appear alongside this older meaning.
In its material sense, prasada is created by a process of giving and receiving between a human devotee and the divine god. For example, a devotee makes an offering of a material substance such as flowers, fruits, or sweets — which is called naivedya. The deity then 'enjoys' or tastes a bit of the offering, which is then temporarily known as bhogya. This now-divinely invested substance is called prasāda and is received by the devotee to be ingested, worn, etc. It may be the same material that was originally offered or material offered by others and then re-distributed to other devotees. In many temples, several kinds of prasada (e.g., nuts, sweets) are distributed to the devotees.
Some strict Gaudiya Vaishnavas, most commonly initiated ISKCON devotees, will eat only prasada, i.e., everything they eat is first offered to Krishna, not simply a few items as with most other Hindus. In addition, the cooking of prasada is done without tasting, because it is not for the believer's own consumption, but to offer to Krishna — they will receive the remnants of Krishna's food, which they consider to be indifferent to Krishna. ISKCON temples are known for providing free prasada meals to all who come, as they believe that this is not only feeding the poor but providing them with Krishna's mercy as well.
One way that Prasad is commonly prepared is to place the food in offering before an image or statue of the spiritual figure to be honored, sometimes on a plate or serving vessel reserved only for spiritual purposes; and only then, after some time is allowed to pass, does the food become holy Prasad for further distribution.
The tradition of offering Prasad to the deity may have started with a very logical explanation that finds its root in the power of positive thought. The Prasad is believed to foster multiple positive thoughts. Firstly, the Prasad is offered to the deity and His blessing is sought for a wish, a task in hand, blessing etc. Herein, it is believed that the Supreme Power has accepted our request in the form of the Prasad and given us the approval or the power to move on. Secondly, this Prasad is considered to be sacred, and thus all being receiving it are believed to be blessed. Thirdly, the most important aspect is that when the primary prayer gives the Prasad to fellow beings he (primary prayer) repeats his wish to the each one of them. Each fellow being in turn accepts the Prasad and prays that the wish of the primary prayer comes true. The more the Prasad is distributed,the more positive thought is concentrated on the wish of the primary prayer, and this in turn causes the universal power of positive thought or belief to work towards the fulfillment of the wish of the primary prayer.
Pratītyasamutpāda, commonly translated as dependent origination or dependent arising, states that all dharmas ("things") arise in dependence upon other dharmas: "if this exists, that exists; if this ceases to exist, that also ceases to exist." It is a pragmatic teaching, which is applied to dukkha and the cessation of dukkha.
A famous application of dependent origination is the Twelve Nidana, or 12 inter-dependences, which describes the chain of causes which result in rebirth. By reverting the chain, liberation from rebirth can be attained. They are:
In the Tibetan Gelugpa school, pratītyasamutpāda is complementary to the concept of śūnyatā "emptiness," which means that no dharma has an existence of its own, and that there is no such "thing" as an "ultimate truth" or "ultimate reality."
A Pratyekabuddha or paccekabuddha, literally "a lone buddha", "a buddha on their own" or "a private buddha", is one of three types of enlightened beings according to some schools of Buddhism. The other two types are arhats and Sammāsambuddhas (Sanskrit samyaksambuddhas).
The holy place at Allahabad where Ganges and Yamuna meet.
In Hindu mythology, Kunti (Sanskrit: Kuntī) also called Pritha, was the biological daughter of Shurasena, the sister of Vasudeva, the foster daughter of her cousin King Kunti-Bhoja, the wife of King Pandu of Hastinapur and the mother of Karna,and King Yudhisthira of Indraprastha.
Hinduism: Pūjā or Poojan is a prayer ritual performed by Hindus to host, honour and worship one or more deities, or to spiritually celebrate an event. Sometimes spelt phonetically as pooja or poojah, it may honour or celebrate the presence of special guest(s), or their memories after they pass away. The word pūjā comes from Sanskrit, and means reverence, honour, homage, adoration, and worship. Puja rituals are also held by Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs.
In Hinduism, puja is done on a variety of occasions, frequency and settings. It may include daily puja done in the home, to occasional temple ceremonies and annual festivals, to few lifetime events such as birth of a baby or a wedding, or to begin a new venture. The two main areas where puja is performed are in the home and at temples to mark certain stages of life, events or some festivals such as Durga Puja and Lakshmi Puja. Puja is not mandatory; it may be a routine daily affair for some Hindus, periodic ritual for some, and infrequent for other Hindus. In some temples, various pujas may be performed daily at various times of the day; in other temples, it may be occasional.
Example via www.ramdass.org: Being Love
Example via www.ramdass.org: Ram Dass on Self Judgment
Puja varies according to the school of Hinduism. Within a given school, puja may vary by region, occasion, deity honored, and steps followed. In formal Nigama ceremonies, a fire may be lit in honour of deity Agni, without an idol or image present. In contrast, in Agama ceremonies, an idol or image of deity is present. In both ceremonies, a diya or incense stick may be lit while a prayer is chanted or hymn is sung. Puja is typically performed by a Hindu worshipper alone, though sometimes in presence of a priest who is well versed in procedure and hymns. In temples and priest-assisted event puja, food, fruits and sweets may be included as offerings to the deity, which, after the prayers, becomes prasad – blessed food shared by all present at the puja.
Both Nigama and Agama puja are practiced in Hinduism in India. In Hinduism of Bali Indonesia, Agama puja is most prevalent both inside homes and in temples. Puja is sometimes called Sembahyang in Indonesia.
Buddhism: In Buddhism, puja (Sanskrit & Pali: pūjā) are expressions of "honour, worship and devotional attention." Acts of puja include bowing, making offerings and chanting. These devotional acts are generally performed daily at home (either in the morning or evening or both) as well as during communal festivals and Uposatha days at a temple.
A first-class priest.
The Puranas (/pʊˈrɑːnəz/; singular: Sanskrit: purāṇa, "of ancient times") are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories. Puranas may also be described as a genre of important Hindu religious texts alongside some Jain and Buddhist religious texts, notably consisting of narratives of the history of the universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology, philosophy, and geography. The Puranas are frequently classified according to the Trimurti (Trinity or the three aspects of the divine). The Padma Purana classifies them in accordance with the three gunas or qualities as Sattva (Truth and Purity), Rajas (Dimness and Passion) and Tamas (Darkness and Ignorance).
Puranas usually give prominence to a particular deity, employing an abundance of religious and philosophical concepts. They are usually written in the form of stories related by one person to another. The Puranas are available in vernacular translations and are disseminated by Brahmin scholars, who read from them and tell their stories, usually in Katha sessions (in which a traveling Brahmin settles for a few weeks in a temple and narrates parts of a Purana, usually with a Bhakti perspective).
Example via www.ramdass.org: “The Complete Life of Krishna” by Vanamali
A large branch of Mahayana, dominantly in East Asia. The goal of Pure Land Buddhism is to be reborn in the Western sukhavati of Amitabha, either as a real place or within the mind, through the other-power of repeating the Buddha's name, nianfo or nembutsu.
Pure Land Buddhism, also referred to as Amidism in English, is a broad branch of Mahāyāna Buddhism and one of the most widely practiced traditions of Buddhism in East Asia. Pure Land is a tradition of Buddhist teachings that are focused on Amitābha Buddha.
Pure Land oriented practices and concepts are found within basic Mahāyāna Buddhist cosmology, and form an important component of the Mahāyāna Buddhist traditions of China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Tibet. The term "Pure Land Buddhism" is used to describe both the Pure Land soteriology of Mahāyāna Buddhism, which may be better understood as "Pure Land traditions" or "Pure Land teachings," and the separate Pure Land sects that developed in Japan. In Japanese Buddhism, Pure Land teachings developed into independent institutional sects, as can be seen in the Jōdo-shū and Jōdo Shinshū schools.
Purochana was an architect in the kingdom of Hastinapur and one of Duryodhanas trusted aides in the Indian epic Mahabharata.
He is better known as the villain who created the Lakshagraha under the orders of Duryodhana and his evil mentor Shakuni. Ironically, Purochana himself perished in the fire meant to kill the Pandavas.
In his previous life he was born as Prahasta who was a powerful Rakshasa warrior, and chief commander of Ravanas army of Lanka. In both his births he has been the minister of the Villains of the time.
A Kaurava warrior.
Puruṣārtha literally means an "object of human pursuit". It is a key concept in Hinduism, and refers to the four proper goals or aims of a human life. The four puruṣārthas are Dharma (righteousness, moral values), Artha (prosperity, economic values), Kāma (pleasure, love, psychological values) and Mokṣa (liberation, spiritual values).
All four Purusarthas are important, but in cases of conflict, Dharma is considered more important than Artha or Kama in Hindu philosophy. Moksha is considered the ultimate ideal of human life.
Historical Indian scholars recognized and debated the inherent tension between active pursuit of wealth (Artha purusartha) and pleasure (Kama), and renunciation of all wealth and pleasure for the sake of spiritual liberation (Moksha). They proposed "action with renunciation" or "craving-free, dharma-driven action", also called Nishkam Karma as a possible solution to the tension.
"Purushottama" (Sanskrit: purusha "spirit" or "male" and uttama, "highest") means "Supreme Purusha", "Supreme Being", "Supreme God", "One who is the Supreme Purusha beyond the Kshara (Destroyable i.e. Prakṛti) and Akshara (Undestroyable i.e. Atman)". Purushottama is also one of the names of Lord Vishnu and appears as 24th name of Lord Vishnu in Vishnu Sahasranama of Mahabharata. According to the Bhagavad Gita, Purushottam is explained as above and beyond kshar and akshar purushas or as an omnipotent cosmic being. The Purushottama was explained by the Integral philosopher Haridas Chaudhuri (1913–1975) as representing that ineffable phenomenon which lies even beyond the undifferentiated Godhead. Lord Rama as an avatara of Lord Vishnu is called Maryada Purushottama where as Lord Krishna as an avatara of Lord Vishnu is known as Leela or Purn Purushottama.
In Hindu mythology Pushkara was the brother of Nala to whom Nala lost his kingdom and all that he possessed in gambling. Kali got very angry when Damayanti chose Nala in the swayamvar. Kali possessed Nala and was defeated by his brother Pushkara.