Portuguese word to describe in a western context the Hindu system of classification of peoples (jāti). Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, non-commensality and hereditary occupations. According to Human Rights Watch and UNICEF, caste discrimination affects an estimated 250 million people worldwide.
A paradigmatic, ethnographic example is the division of Indian society into social groups. Historically, the caste system in India has consisted of thousands of endogamous groups called Jatis or Quoms and Biradaris (among Muslims). The Nepalese caste system resembles the Indian Jāti system with numerous Jāti divisions with the theoretical Varna system superimposed for a rough equivalence.
Religious, historical and sociocultural factors have also helped define the bounds of endogamy for Muslims in India and Pakistan. The Caste system in Sri Lanka is a division of society into strata, similar to the Jāti system found in India.
Yezidi society is hierarchical. In Yemen there exists a hereditary caste, the African-descended Al-Akhdam who are kept as perennial manual workers. Various sociologists have reported caste systems in Africa.
Cetanā (Sanskrit, Pali; Tibetan Wylie: sems pa) is a Buddhist term commonly translated as "volition", "intention", "directionality", etc. It can be defined as a mental factor that moves or urges the mind in a particular direction, toward a specific object or goal. Cetanā is identified within the Buddhist teachings as follows:
A reliquary holding holy objects of veneration. Cetiya, "reminders" or "memorials" (Sanskrit caitya), are objects and places used by Theravada Buddhists to remember Gautama Buddha. According to Prince Damrongrāchānuphāp, four kinds are distinguished in the Pāli Canon: "Relic [Dhatu], Memorial [Paribhoga], Teaching [Dhamma], and Votive [Udesaka]." Griswold, in contrast, states that three are traditional and the fourth, the dhamma, was added later to remind monks that the true memory of Gautama Buddha can be found in his teachings. While these can be broadly called Buddhist symbolism, the emphasis tends to be on a historical connection to the Buddha and not a metaphysical one.
An energy node in the human body. The seven main chakras are described as being aligned in an ascending column from the base of the spine to the top of the head. Each chakra is associated with a certain colour, multiple specific functions, an aspect of consciousness, a classical element, and other distinguishing characteristics.
In Sanātana/Hindu and tantric/yogic traditions and other belief systems, a chakra (IAST: cakra) is an energy point or node in the subtle body. Chakras are part of the subtle body, not the physical body, and as such are the meeting points of the subtle (non-physical) energy channels called nadis. Nadis are channels in the subtle body through which the life force (prana) (non-physical) or vital energy (non-physical) moves. Various scriptural texts and teachings present a different number of chakras. There are many chakras in the subtle human body according to the tantric texts, but there are seven chakras that are considered to be the most important ones.
Their name derives from the Sanskrit word for "wheel" or "turning", but in the yogic context a better translation of the word is 'vortex or whirlpool'.
The concept of chakra features in tantric and yogic traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism.
Example video: Ram Dass: 08/09/69. As you unlock your chakra centers you will have more energy. You become more and more open to the world around you.
Example via www.ramdass.org: Chakras in the Body
A Kaurava warrior.
The Chala or "Coast" is one of the eight natural regions in Peru. It is formed by all the western lands that arise from sea level up to the height of 500 meters.
In this region, the flora includes vegetation that grows near the rivers, like the carob tree, the palo verde, salty grama grass, manglar or mangrove tree, the carrizo or giant reed and the Caña brava (ditch reed); and plants that grow in the hills, such as the Amancay or Peruvian daffodil (Hymenocallis amancaes), the wild tomato, the Mito or Peruvian papaya (Vasconcellea candicans), and the divi-divi (Cæsalpinia coriaria).
The coastal fauna of the Chala includes sea lions, the anchovy and several sea birds.
Common trees in North are the Faique, the Zapote, the Zapayal, the barrigon and other thorny tropical savanna trees of the equatorial dry forests on the northern coast of Piura and Tumbes. Páramo and the northern coast of the Piura region are not under the influence of the cold Humboldt Current. Páramo has a Tree line at the border, even on the westside of the continental divide.
The term Champa refers to a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 7th century through 1832, before being conquered and annexed by Vietnam. The kingdom was known variously as nagara Campa in the Chamic and Cambodian inscriptions, Chăm Pa in Vietnamese and Zhànchéng in Chinese records.
The Cham people of modern Vietnam and Cambodia are the remnants of this former kingdom. They speak Chamic languages, a subfamily of Malayo-Polynesian closely related to the Malayic and Bali–Sasak languages.
Champa was preceded in the region by a kingdom called Linyi or Lâm Ấp (Vietnamese) that was in existence from 192 AD; the historical relationship between Linyi and Champa is not clear. Champa reached its apogee in the 9th and 10th centuries. Thereafter, it began a gradual decline under pressure from Đại Việt, the Vietnamese polity centered in the region of modern Hanoi. In 1832, the Vietnamese emperor Minh Mạng annexed the remaining Cham territories.
Mỹ Sơn, a former religious center, and Hội An, one of Champa's main port cities, are now World Heritage Sites.
A merchant-prince of Champaka Nagar. Manasā Devi woos the devotion of him. Chand Sadagar, (the surname is also spelt Saudagar), was a rich and powerful merchant of Champak Nagar, Chaygaon in ancient Kamrup. Bipradas Pipilai gave an account in his Manasamangal about the merchant ship of the trader Chand Saudagar proceeding to the sea, passing through Saptagram and Tribeni, the tri junction of the Ganges, Saraswati and Yamuna. His life is a story of how he was forced to be converted to become a worshipper of Manasa, the goddess of snakes.
Chandala is a Sanskrit word for someone who deals with disposal of corpses, and is a Hindu lower caste, traditionally considered to be untouchable. A person of a degraded caste, whose conduct was much below standard and whose cause pollution.
A devotee of Manasā.
A royal servant and head charioteer of Prince Siddhartha, who was to become the Buddha.
Channa - The Divine Charioteer (Pali: Channa; Sanskrit: Chandaka) (6th century BCE, in what is now Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India) was a royal servant and head charioteer of Prince Siddhartha, who was to become the Buddha. Channa later became a disciple of the Buddha and achieved arahantship, as is described in the 78th verse of the Dhammapada.
Channa was a servant in the court of King Suddhodarna who was entrusted to attend to the needs of Siddhartha, who had been lavished and pampered in a series of purpose-built palaces in order to shield him from thoughts of pain and suffering. This was done due to a prophecy by the ascetic Asita, who predicted that Siddhartha would renounce the throne to become a spiritual leader were he to contemplate human suffering. Channa was the servant who served as the charioteer pulled by the horse Kanthaka, when Siddhartha saw the Four sights whilst meeting his subjects in the Sakya capital Kapilavastu, which prompted his decision to renounce the world.
During these expeditions, Channa explained to Siddhartha the sights of an elderly man, a sick person, a dead person whose funeral was being conducted and finally, an ascetic who had renounced worldly life for a spiritual one, as Siddhartha who had been secluded from such sights within the palace was taken aback. Channa was later entrusted by Siddhartha to accompany him upon his escape from the palace to become an ascetic, whilst the remainder of the palace guards were asleep.
After initially protesting and refusing to accept that Siddhartha would leave him, Channa saddled Kanthaka, guiding him out of the town aboard the horse to a forest by the edge of the Anoma River. Channa returned Siddhartha's acoutrements, weapons and hair to Suddhodarnha upon his return to the palace, after Siddhartha compelled him to return after Channa had refused to leave him.
Upon Siddhartha's enlightenment as Gautama Buddha and return to Kapilavastu, Channa became a Buddhist monk, joining the Sangha. Due to his lone accompaniment of the Buddha on his renouncement, Channa behaved in an overbearing way to the other monks, and frequently criticized the two chief disciples Sariputta and Moggallana. In spite of continual advice from The Buddha he continued to abuse the other monks. Prior to the parinibbana, the Buddha instructed Ananda to impose the brahmadanda on Channa, whereby the other monks would simply ignore him. After the parinibbana, Channa learned of the decree, and feeling remorse for his behaviour, he fainted three times before asking and obtaining pardon. He eventually became an arahant.
A son of King Dhritarashtra who perished in the war.
An ancient Indian Ayurvedic text on internal medicine written by Caraka. It is believed to be the oldest of the three ancient treatises of Ayurveda. The Charaka Samhitā ("Compendium of Charaka") is an early text on Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine). Along with the Sushruta Samhita, it is one of the two foundational texts of this field that have survived from ancient India.
Early forms are dated to the period of 900 BCE - 600 BCE. While the later editions of Charaka samhitā are dated to later centuries.
Place of public assembly of the village. It is the property of the entire community. In it all public business is transacted, and it serves also as the village club the headquarters of the village police and guest house for travellers.
A kingdodom of Shishupāla, old name of present Chanderi. The Kingdom of Chedi was one among the many kingdoms ruled during early periods by Paurava kings and later by Yadava kings in the central India. It falls roughly in the Bundelkhand division of Madhya Pradesh regions to the south of river Yamuna and along river Betwa or Vetravati. The Chedi Kingdom was ruled by Sisupala, an ally of Jarasandha of Magadha and Duryodhana of Kuru. He was a rival of Vasudeva Krishna who was his uncle's son. He was killed by Vasudeva Krishna during the Rajasuya sacrifice of the Pandava king Yudhisthira. Bhima's wife was from Chedi. The city called Suktimati is mentioned as the capital of Chedi. Prominent Chedis during Kurukshetra War included Damaghosha, Shishupala, Dhrishtaketu, Suketu, Sarabha, Bhima's wife, Nakula's wife Karenumati, Dhristaketu's sons. Other famous Chedis included King Uparichara Vasu, his children, King Suvahu, King Sahaja.
Chekitana was son of Dhrishtaketu, Raja of the Kekayas, and an ally of the Pandavas. Nachiketa as son of Dhrishtaketu, Raja of the Kekayas, and an ally of the Pandavas. He was slain by Duryodhana on the final day of the Mahabharata war.
Chela has two main meanings. One derivation comes from Sanskrit (cela), meaning "slave" or "servant". In Hindi (celaa), the word means "disciple, pupil." The other derivation comes from Greek (chele) and Latin (chela), meaning "claw", now specifically that of an arthropod.
Example via www.ramdass.org: The Need for a Guru
A son of Dhritarashtra killed in the war.
One of the many sons of King Dhritarashtra who fell in the war.
Chitrakūta was in mountain forests where Rama, Sita and Lakshmana spent eleven and half years of their exile; The hermitages of Vālmīki, Atri, Sati Anusuya, Dattatreya, Maharshi Markandeya, Sarbhanga, Sutikshna were here; and here the principal trinity of the Hindu pantheon, Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh, took their incarnations.
Chitralekha was a friend of Usha and daughter of minister of Banasura. She was a talented lady who helped Usha to identify the young man, Aniruddha, seen in the dream of Usha. Chitralekha through supernatural powers abducted Aniruddha from the palace of Krishna and brought him to Usha. Chitralekha was a friend of Usha and daughter of minister of Banasura.
She was a talented lady who helped Usha to identify the young man seen in the dream of Usha. Usha was daughter of Banasura, a thousand-armed asura and son of Bali. Banasur was a powerful and terrible asura. When Usha became young, number of proposals came for her marriage but Banasur accepted none. Usha one day saw a young man in her dream and fell in love with him. He was Aniruddha, the grandson of Lord Krishna. Chitralekha through supernatural powers abducted Aniruddha from the palace of Krishna and brought him to Usha. When Krishna knew it he came with a huge army and attacked Banasura. There was a severe battle. Banasura had got a powerful boon by Lord Shiva that he will always protect him in any circumstances. When banasura came to know that he will be defeated by the enormous powers of Lord Krishna he asked Lord Shiva to come in battlefield and help him.So unwillingly Shiva helped Banasura by spreading fever causing bacteria in the army of Krishna, which made his army unable to fight. Krishna in turn created anti-bacteria (probably anti-biotics or bacteriophages) to kill bacteria spread by Shiva. All soldiers of Krishna’s army got healed and became ready to fight. She is referred to as the consort of Ketu of the Navagraha.
Elder son of Santanu born of Matsyagandhi (Satyavati) who succeeded his father on the throne of Hastinapura. In the epic Mahabharata, Chitrāngada, is the elder son of Shantanu and Satyavati. He ascended the throne of Hastinapura after his father's death, but was killed by a Gandharva namesake.
Chitrāngadā was one of Arjuna's wives. Arjuna travelled the length and breadth of India during his term of exile. In ancient Manipur in the eastern Himalayas he met Chitrāngadā, the daughter of the king of Manipur and married her. Babhruvahana was soon born to the couple. Babruvahana would succeed his grandfather as king of Manipur.
Chitrāngadā, in the Hindu epic Mahābhārata, is one of Arjuna's wives. Arjuna travelled the length and breadth of India during his term of exile. His wanderings took him to ancient Manipura, an almost mystic kingdom renowned for its natural beauty. There, he met Chitrāngadā, the daughter of the king of Manipura, and moved to her father Chitrabahana to seek her hand in marriage. Her father demurred on the plea that, according to the matrilineal customs of his people, the children born of Chitrāngadā were heir to Manipura; he could not allow his heirs to be taken away from Manipur by their father. Arjuna agreed to the stipulation that he would take away neither his wife Chitrāngadā nor any children born by her from Manipura and wed the princess on this premise. A son, whom they named Babruvahana, . Babruvahana would succeed his grandfather as king of Manipura.
King of the Gandharvas who prevented the Kauravas from putting up their camp near the pond where he himself had encamped. Chitrasena, a minor character in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, was a Gandharva king who taught song and dance to Arjuna. He resided in Indra's palace along with his fellow Gandharvas and Apsaras. He also routed the army of Duryodana and Karna in a minor skirmish that took place before the Kurukshetra War.
A brother of Duryodhana who was killed in the war.
A Kaurava prince who laid down his life in the war.
A great rishi, husband of beautiful wife Sukanyā whom Ashvins beheld at her bath. Chyavana was a rishi in Hindu mythology. He was son of Bhrigu and is known for his rejuvenation through a special herbal paste known as Chyawanprash, which was first prepared for him some 10,000 years ago, at his Ashram on Dhosi Hill. According to the Mahabharata, he was powerful enough to oppose the Vajra of Indra and was responsible for the Ashvins getting their share of the sacrificial offerings. He created a demon, Mada, to achieve it.
Chyavana is mentioned in the Rigveda as Chyavāna. He is described as an aged and feeble person whose youth and strength was restored by the twin Ashvini Kumar brothers, who were the Rajya Vaids or 'State Doctors'. According to a hymn of this text (X.61.1-3), Chyavāna seems to be opposed to Turvayana, an Indra worshipper Paktha king as he was closer to the Ashvins.
According to one tradition, he married Vaivasvata Manu's daughter Arushi and their son was Aurva. According to another tradition, he married Sukanya, daughter of Vedic king 'Sharyati' and granddaughter of Vaivasvata Manu. They had two sons Apnavana and Dadhicha. He is also considered as father of Harita.