The descendants of Yadu, who dwelt by the Yamuna river.
Yadu is one of the five Indo-Aryan tribes (panchajana, panchakrishtya or panchamanusha) mentioned in the Rig Veda.
The Hindu epic Mahabharata, the Harivamsha and the Puranas mention Yadu as the eldest son of king Yayati and his queen Devayani. The prince of King Yayati, Yadu was a self-respecting and a very established ruler. According to the Vishnu Purana, the Bhagavata Purana and the Garuda Purana, Yadu had four sons, while according to the rest of the Puranas he had five sons. The kings between Budha and Yayati were known as Somavanshi. According to a narrative found in the Mahabharata, and the Vishnu Purana, Yadu refused to exchange his years of youth with his father Yayati. So he was cursed by Yayati that none of Yadu's progeny shall possess the dominion under his father's command. Thereby, he could not have carried on the same dynasty, called Somavamshi. Notably, the only remaining dynasty of King Puru was entitled to be known as Somavamshi. Thereby King Yadu ordered that the future generations of his would be known as Yadavas and the dynasty would be known as Yaduvanshi. The generations of Yadu had an unprecedented growth and got divided into two branches.
Those of the clan of Yadu.
In Hinduism, yajña (IAST: yajña) ("sacrifice") is the ritual act of offering labour or materials. In more formal ceremonies, it is a practice from historical Vedic religion where specific offerings are made, accompanied by the chanting of Vedic mantras. Agni Yajna is the ritual offering of ghee, grain and havana sámagri ("herbal preparations") into a sacred fire.
The meaning of the word yajna is derived from the Sanskrit verb yaj, which has a threefold meaning of worship of deities (devapujana), unity (sangatikarana) and charity (dána). An essential element is the ritual fire – the divine Agni – into which oblations are poured, as everything that is offered into the fire is believed to reach the deity or deities.
The Sanskrit word is related to the Avestan term yasna of Zoroastrianism. Unlike the Vedic yajna, the Yasna is the name of a specific religious service, not a class of rituals, and they have "to do with water rather than fire".
Temple rites in modern-day Hinduism are a combination of both Vedic and agamic rituals. The ritualistic portion of the Hindu scriptures is called karmakanda. Parts of Vedas which describe or discuss the yajñas fall into this portion.
A Vedic ritual of sacrifice performed to please the Devas, or sometimes to the Supreme Spirit Brahman. Often it involves a fire, which represents the god Agni, in the centre of the stage and items are offered into the fire.
Yaksha (Sanskrit: yakṣa) is the name of a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, who are caretakers of the natural treasures hidden in the earth and tree roots. They appear in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist literature. The feminine form of the word is yakṣī or Yakshini (yakṣiṇī).
In Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist texts, the yakṣa has a dual personality. On the one hand, a yakṣa may be an inoffensive nature-fairy, associated with woods and mountains; but there is also a darker version of the yakṣa, which is a kind of ghost (bhuta) that haunts the wilderness and waylays and devours travelers, similar to the rakṣasas.
In Kālidāsa's poem Meghadūta, for instance, the yakṣa narrator is a romantic figure, pining with love for his missing beloved. By contrast, in the didactic Hindu dialogue of the Yakṣapraśnāḥ "Questions of the Yakṣa", it is a tutelary spirit of a lake that challenges Yudhiṣṭhira. The yakṣas may have originally been the tutelary gods of forests and villages, and were later viewed as the steward deities of the earth and the wealth buried beneath.
In Indian art, male yakṣas are portrayed either as fearsome warriors or as portly, stout and dwarf-like. Female yakṣas, known as yakṣiṇīs, are portrayed as beautiful young women with happy round faces and full breasts and hips.
Yama or Yamarāja is the god of death, belonging to an early stratum of Vedic mythology. In Sanskrit, his name can be interpreted to mean "twin". In the Zend-Avesta he is called "Yima". According to the Vishnu Purana, his parents are the sun-god Surya and Sanjna, sometimes called "Usha", the daughter of Visvakarman. Yama is the brother of the current Manu Vaivasvatha and of his older sister Yami, which H. H. Wilson indicates to mean the Yamuna river. According to Harivamsa Purana her name is Daya. There is a one-of-a-kind temple in Srivanchiyam, Tamil Nadu, India, dedicated to Yama.
In the Vedas, Yama is said to have been the first mortal who died. By virtue of precedence, he became the ruler of the departed, called "Lord of the Pitrs".
Mentioned by the Buddha in the Pali canon, Yama subsequently entered Buddhist, Chinese, Tibetan, Korean, Vietnamese, and Japanese mythology as a wrathful god under various transliterations. He is otherwise also called as "Dharmaraja".
Yamas, and its complement, niyamas, represent a series of "right living" or ethical rules within Hinduism and Yoga. They are a form of moral imperatives, commandments, rules or goals. The five Yamas of Patañjali's classical yoga system are commitments that affect the yogi's relations with others. The five Niyamas of Patañjali's classical yoga system are personal obligations to live well.
Ten yamas are codified as "the restraints" in numerous scriptures including the Śāṇḍilya and Vārāha Upanishads, the Hatha Yoga Pradipika by Svātmārāma, and the Tirumantiram of Tirumular. Patañjali lists only five yamas in his Yoga Sūtras.
The Yamuna (Pron: jəmʊnaː), sometimes called Jamuna, is the largest tributary river of the Ganges, (Ganga) in northern India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of 6,387 metres on the south western slopes of Banderpooch peaks in the uppermost region of the Lower Himalayas in Uttarakhand, it travels a total length of 1,376 kilometers (855 mi) and has a drainage system of 366,223 square kilometres (141,399 sq mi), 40.2% of the entire Ganges Basin, before merging with the Ganges at Triveni Sangam, Allahabad, the site for the Kumbha Mela every twelve years .
It crosses several states, Uttarakhand, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, passing by Uttarakhand and later Delhi, and meets its tributaries on the way, including Tons, its largest and longest tributary in Uttarakhand, Chambal, which has its own large basin, followed by Sindh, the Betwa, and Ken. Most importantly it creates the highly fertile alluvial, Yamuna-Ganges Doab region between itself and the Ganges in the Indo-Gangetic plain. Nearly 57 million people depend on the Yamuna waters. With an annual flow of about 10,000 cubic billion metres (cbm) and usage of 4,400 cbm (of which irrigation constitutes 96 per cent), the river accounts for more than 70 per cent of Delhi’s water supplies. Just like the Ganges, the Yamuna too is highly venerated in Hinduism and worshipped as goddess Yamuna, throughout its course. In Hindu mythology, she is the daughter of Sun God, Surya, and sister of Yama, the God of Death, hence also known as Yami and according to popular legends, bathing in its sacred waters frees one from the torments of death.
The water of Yamuna is of "reasonably good quality" through its length from Yamunotri in the Himalayas to Wazirabad in Delhi, about 375 kilometres (233 mi), where the discharge of waste water through 15 drains between Wazirabad barrage and Okhla barrage renders the river severely polluted after Wazirabad. One official describes the river as a "sewage drain" with biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values ranging from 14 to 28 mg/l and high coliform content. There are three main sources of pollution in the river, namely households and municipal disposal sites, soil erosion resulting from deforestation occurring to make way for agriculture along with resulting chemical wash-off from fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides and run-off from commercial activity and industrial sites.
Divisions or schools of Buddhism according to their type of practice. Yāna (Sanskrit and Pāli: "vehicle") refers to a mode or method of spiritual practice in Buddhism, and in particular to divisions of various schools of Buddhism according to their type of practice.
Yashoda (Yaśodā), also spelt as Yasoda, is the foster-mother to the god Krishna and a wife of Nanda in the Puranic texts of Hinduism. Within the Bhagavata Purana, it is described that Krishna who was born to Devaki, was given to Yashoda and Nanda in Gokul by Krishna's father Vasudeva on the night of his birth, for his protection from Devaki's brother, Kamsa, the king of Mathura.
Yātrā (Sanskrit: 'journey', 'procession'), in Hinduism and other Indian religions, generally means pilgrimage to holy places such as confluences of sacred rivers, places associated with Hindu epics such as the Mahabharata and Ramayana, and other sacred pilgrimage sites. Tīrtha-yātrā refers to a pilgrimage to a holy site, and is generally undertaken in groups. One who goes on a yatra is known as a yatri. As per Vedic Hindu Dharma shastras a Yatri is supposed to do Yatra barefoot. He/she should travel without umbrellas,vehicles etc., to get the benefit of the Yatra. At present these rules are not followed by many pilgrims.
Son of Sage Bharadwaja who was bent upon mastering the Vedas.
Yayati was a Puranic king and the son of King Nahusha and his wife Viraja. He was one of the ancestors of Pandavas. He had five brothers: Yati, Samyati, Ayati, Viyati and Kriti. He had two wives, Devayani and Sharmishtha. Devayani was the daughter of Shukracharya, the priest of Asuras (the demons). Sharmishtha was the daughter of the demons king Vrishparva. Sharmishtha was a friend and later a maid of Devayani. After hearing of his relationship with second wife Sharmishtha from Devayani, her father, sage Shukracharya, cursed Yayati to old age in the prime of life, but later allowed him to exchange it with his son, Puru. His story finds mention in the Mahabharata-Adi Parva and also Bhagavata Purana.
Yoga is a physical, mental, and spiritual practice or discipline which originated in India. There is a broad variety of schools, practices and goals in Hinduism, Buddhism (including Vajrayana and Tibetan Buddhism) and Jainism. The best-known are Hatha yoga and Raja yoga.
The origins of Yoga have been speculated to date back to pre-Vedic Indian traditions, but most likely developed around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE, in ancient India's ascetic circles, which are also credited with the early sramana movements. The chronology of earliest texts describing yoga-practices is unclear, varyingly credited to Hindu Upanishads and Buddhist Pāli Canon, probably of third century BCE or later. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali date from the first half of the 1st millennium CE, but only gained prominence in the 20th century. Hatha yoga texts emerged around 11th century CE, and in its origins was related to Tantrism.
Example via www.ramdass.org: Karma Yoga in Daily Life
Yoga gurus from India later introduced yoga to the west, following the success of Swami Vivekananda in the late 19th and early 20th century. In the 1980s, yoga became popular as a system of physical exercise across the Western world. Yoga in Indian traditions, however, is more than physical exercise, it has a meditative and spiritual core. One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is also called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, and is closely related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy.
Many studies have tried to determine the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia, asthma, and heart disease. The results of these studies have been mixed and inconclusive, with cancer studies suggesting none to unclear effectiveness, and others suggesting yoga may reduce risk factors and aid in a patient's psychological healing process.
One of the six darshanas of Hindu or Vedic schools and, alongside the Bhagavad Gita and Hatha Yoga Pradipika, are a milestone in the history of Yoga. The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are 196 Indian sūtras (aphorisms). The Yoga Sutras were compiled around 400 CE by Patañjali, taking materials about yoga from older traditions. Together with his commentary they form the Pātañjalayogaśāstra.
The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali was the most translated ancient Indian text in the medieval era, having been translated into about forty Indian languages and two non-Indian languages: Old Javanese and Arabic. The text fell into obscurity for nearly 700 years from the 12th to 19th century, and made a comeback in late 19th century due to the efforts of Swami Vivekananda. It gained prominence again as a comeback classic in the 20th century.
In the 20th century the corporate Yoga subculture elevated the Yoga Sutras to a status it never knew previously. Before the 20th century, history indicates the Indian yoga scene was dominated by the Bhagavad Gita, Yoga Vasistha, texts attributed to Yajnavalkya and Hiranyagarbha, as well literature on Hatha Yoga, Tantric Yoga and Pashupata Yoga rather than the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.
Scholars consider Patanjali's Yogasutra formulations as one of the foundations of classical yoga philosophy.
Example via www.ramdass.org: “Yoga Sutras of Patanjali” translated by Swami Satchidananda
One who seeks union with God, or one who practices yoga. These designations are mostly reserved for advanced practitioners. The word "yoga" itself—from the Sanskrit root yuj ("to yoke") --is generally translated as "union" or "integration" and may be understood as union with the Divine, or integration of body, mind, and spirit.
A yogi is a practitioner of yoga. The term "yogi" is also used to refer specifically to Siddhas, and broadly to refer to ascetic practitioners of meditation in a number of Indian religions including Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
Example via www.ramdass.org: “Autobiography of a Yogi” by Paramahansa Yogananda
A Panchala prince supporting the Pandavas, who was assigned the task of protecting the wheels of Arjuna's chariot along with Uttamauja. He was slain in his sleep by Ashvatthama.
In the Hindu epic Mahabharata,Yudhisthira (Sanskrit: yudhiṣṭhira) was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti, was king of Indraprastha and later of Hastinapura (Kuru). For his piety, he was known as. He was the leader of the successful Pandava side in the Kurukshetra War or the Mahabharata War. At the end of the epic, he ascended to heaven along with his four brothers.
In the description of Vyas and Krishna the king was fair, lotus-eyed, with a long and stout nose, tall and strong but humble like any not-so-regal citizen.
Yuga in Hindu philosophy is the name of an epoch or era within a four age cycle. According to Hindu cosmology, life in the universe is created and destroyed once every 4.1 to 8.2 billion years, which is one full day and night for Brahma. The lifetime of Brahma himself believed to be 311 trillion and 40 billion years as per Hindu cosmology. The cycles are said to repeat like the seasons, waxing and waning within a greater time-cycle of the creation and destruction of our universe. Like Summer, Spring, Winter and Autumn, each yuga involves stages or gradual changes which the earth and the consciousness of mankind goes through as a whole. A complete Yuga cycle from a high Golden Age, called the Satya Yuga to a Dark Age, Kali Yuga and back again is said to be caused by the solar system's motion around another star.
Example via www.ramdass.org: Helping Out
Yuga Dharma is one aspect of Dharma, as understood by Hindus. Yuga dharma is that aspect of dharma that is valid for a Yuga, an epoch or age as established by Hindu tradition. The other aspect of dharma is Sanatan Dharma, dharma which is not subject to change.
Hindu sacred writings are broken into two groups: Śruti writings (such as the Vedas) regarded as timeless in character, and Smriti, writings that focus on less timeless elements. Sanatan Dharma is based on the Shruti writings, while Yuga Dharma is based on the Smitris.
Some scholars describe Santan dharma as the overall, unchanging and abiding principals of dharma, and describe Yuga dharma as a lesser aspect of dharma, since it is constantly changing. Such scholars distinguish Sanatan dharma as the dharma of religion, and Yuga dharma as the dharma of social interaction: law, ethics, etiquette and so on.
Swami Vivekananda describes the distinction between them in this way. Of Sanatan dharma, he says:
We know that in our books, a clear distinction is made between two sets of truths. The one set is that which abides for ever, being built upon the nature of man, the nature of the soul, the soul's relation to God, the nature of God, perfection and so on; there are also the principles of cosmology, of the infinitude of creation, or more correctly speaking, projection, the wonderful law of cyclical procession, and so on; these are eternal principles founded upon the universal laws of nature.
Of Yuga dharma, he says:
The other set comprises the minor laws, which guide the working of our everyday life. They belong more properly to the Puranas, to the Smrtis, and not to the Sruti. These have nothing to do with the other principles. Even in India, these minor laws have been changing all the time. Customs of one age, of one yuga, have not been the customs of another, and as yuga come after yuga, they will still have to change.
Yuyudhana (Sanskrit: Yuyudhāna), better known as Satyaki (Sanskrit: Sātyaki), was a powerful warrior belonging to the Vrishni clan of the Yadavas, to which Krishna also belonged. According to the Puranas, he was grandson of Shini of the Vrishni clan, and son of Satyaka. A valiant warrior, Satyaki was devoted to Krishna and was a student of Arjuna. He is also known as the unconquerable Satyaki.
Yuyutsu in the Hindu epic Mahabharata was a son of Dhritrashtra with a Vaishya woman named Sughada. Conceived under the fear that Gandhari couldn't produce any children, he was as old as Duryodhana and the rest of the 99 Kuru brothers and Dushala. Eventually, he was the only son of Dhritarashtra who survived the Kurukshetra war. After the war, he took charge as the King of Indraprastha.